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      Western corn rootworm abundance, injury to corn, and resistance to Cry3Bb1 in the local landscape of previous problem fields

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          Abstract

          Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of corn in the United States. Transgenic corn expressing insecticidal proteins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is an important tool used to manage rootworm populations. However, field-evolved resistance to Bt threatens this technology. In areas where resistance is present, resistant individuals may travel from one field to a neighboring field, spreading resistance alleles. An important question that remains to be answered is the extent to which greater-than-expected root injury (i.e., >1 node of injury) to Cry3Bb1 corn from western corn rootworm is associated with rootworm abundance, root injury, and levels of resistance in neighboring fields. To address this question, fields with a history of greater-than-expected injury to Cry3Bb1 corn (focal fields) and surrounding fields (< 2.2 km from focal fields) were examined to quantify rootworm abundance, root injury, and resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn. Additionally, use of Bt corn and soil insecticide use for the previous six years were quantified for each field. Resistance to Cry3Bb1 was present in all fields assayed, even though focal fields had grown more Cry3 corn and less non-Bt corn than surrounding fields. This finding implies that some movement of resistance alleles had occurred between focal fields and surrounding fields. Overall, our data suggest that resistance to Cry3Bb1 in the landscape has been influenced by both local rootworm movement and field-level management tactics.

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          Sustainability of transgenic insecticidal cultivars: integrating pest genetics and ecology.

          F. Gould (1998)
          This review examines potential impacts of transgenic cultivars on insect population dynamics and evolution. Experience with classically bred, insecticidal cultivars has demonstrated that a solid understanding of both the target insect's ecology and the cultivar's performance under varied field conditions will be essential for predicting area-wide effects of transgenic cultivars on pest and natural enemy dynamics. This experience has also demonstrated the evolutionary capacity of pests for adaptive response to insecticidal traits in crops. Biochemical and genetic studies of insect adaptation to the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins expressed by currently marketed transgenic cultivars indicate a high risk for rapid adaptation if these cultivars are misused. Theoretical and practical issues involved in implementing strategies to delay pest adaptation to insecticidal cultivars are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on examining the "high dose"/refuge strategy that has become the goal of industry and regulatory authorities.
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            A meta-analysis of effects of Bt cotton and maize on nontarget invertebrates.

            Although scores of experiments have examined the ecological consequences of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops, debates continue regarding the nontarget impacts of this technology. Quantitative reviews of existing studies are crucial for better gauging risks and improving future risk assessments. To encourage evidence-based risk analyses, we constructed a searchable database for nontarget effects of Bt crops. A meta-analysis of 42 field experiments indicates that nontarget invertebrates are generally more abundant in Bt cotton and Bt maize fields than in nontransgenic fields managed with insecticides. However, in comparison with insecticide-free control fields, certain nontarget taxa are less abundant in Bt fields.
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              Two-toxin strategies for management of insecticidal transgenic crops: can pyramiding succeed where pesticide mixtures have not?

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                31 July 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 7
                : e0237094
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States of America
                [2 ] Bayer Crop Science, Resistance Management, Chesterfield, MO, United States of America
                University of Tennessee, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: AJG received research funding for this work from Bayer and has also received research funding not related to this work from AMVAC, Dow AgroSciences, DuPont, FMC, Monsanto, Syngenta, and Valent. However, this does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9590-973X
                Article
                PONE-D-20-04180
                10.1371/journal.pone.0237094
                7394452
                32735582
                faacb8a5-1cc7-4eb2-8906-271ffd1edfed
                © 2020 St. Clair et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 12 February 2020
                : 20 July 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 5, Pages: 22
                Funding
                This work was supported with funding from Bayer Crop Science ( https://www.cropscience.bayer.com) to AJG. The funder provided support in the form of salaries for authors CRS and GPH. GPH, as a scientist at Bayer Crop Science and a coauthor of this study, provided input on the design of the study and provided comments on a completed draft of the manuscript. Aside from these interactions, the funding agency had no role in data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Animal Studies
                Experimental Organism Systems
                Model Organisms
                Maize
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Model Organisms
                Maize
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Grasses
                Maize
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Animal Studies
                Experimental Organism Systems
                Plant and Algal Models
                Maize
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Developmental Biology
                Life Cycles
                Larvae
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Agrochemicals
                Insecticides
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                North America
                United States
                Iowa
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Toxicology
                Toxic Agents
                Toxins
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
                Toxicology
                Toxic Agents
                Toxins
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Crop Science
                Crops
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Pests
                Insect Pests
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Physiology
                Reproductive Physiology
                Eggs
                Bird Eggs
                Chicken Eggs
                Custom metadata
                All data underlying this study are available at https://doi.org/10.25380/iastate.12582110.v1.

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                Uncategorized

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