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      Puerarin transport across a Calu-3 cell monolayer – an in vitro model of nasal mucosa permeability and the influence of paeoniflorin and menthol

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          Abstract

          Nasal administration is a high-potential delivery system, particularly because it can provide a pathway from the nose to the brain. The objective of this research is to characterize puerarin transport across a Calu-3 cell monolayer used as a model of the nasal mucosa and to evaluate the influence of puerarin in combination with paeoniflorin and menthol to explore the enhanced mechanism of the permeability at the cell level. The apparent permeability coefficients ( P app) of puerarin bidirectional transport were both <1.5×10 −6 cm/s, and the efflux ratio was <1.5, indicating that puerarin alone exhibited poor absorption and that its transport primarily occurred by passive diffusion through the cell monolayer. When puerarin was coad ministered with paeoniflorin, the P app was not changed ( P>0.05). However, the addition of menthol significantly ( P<0.05) improved the P app of puerarin in both directions. Moreover, based on immunofluorescence experiments and transepithelial electrical resistance measurements, the data indicated that the drug compatibility opened tight junctions and weakened the barrier capabilities of epithelial cells, thereby promoting the permeability of puerarin.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Claudin-1 and -2: Novel Integral Membrane Proteins Localizing at Tight Junctions with No Sequence Similarity to Occludin

          Occludin is the only known integral membrane protein localizing at tight junctions (TJ), but recent targeted disruption analysis of the occludin gene indicated the existence of as yet unidentified integral membrane proteins in TJ. We therefore re-examined the isolated junction fraction from chicken liver, from which occludin was first identified. Among numerous components of this fraction, only a broad silver-stained band ∼22 kD was detected with the occludin band through 4 M guanidine-HCl extraction as well as sonication followed by stepwise sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Two distinct peptide sequences were obtained from the lower and upper halves of the broad band, and similarity searches of databases allowed us to isolate two full-length cDNAs encoding related mouse 22-kD proteins consisting of 211 and 230 amino acids, respectively. Hydrophilicity analysis suggested that both bore four transmembrane domains, although they did not show any sequence similarity to occludin. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that both proteins tagged with FLAG or GFP were targeted to and incorporated into the TJ strand itself. We designated them as “claudin-1” and “claudin-2”, respectively. Although the precise structure/function relationship of the claudins to TJ still remains elusive, these findings indicated that multiple integral membrane proteins with four putative transmembrane domains, occludin and claudins, constitute TJ strands.
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            The tight junction: a multifunctional complex.

            Multicellular organisms are separated from the external environment by a layer of epithelial cells whose integrity is maintained by intercellular junctional complexes composed of tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, whereas gap junctions provide for intercellular communication. The aim of this review is to present an updated overview of recent developments in the area of tight junction biology. In a relatively short time, our knowledge of the tight junction has evolved from a relatively simple view of it being a permeability barrier in the paracellular space and a fence in the plane of the plasma membrane to one of it acting as a multicomponent, multifunctional complex that is involved in regulating numerous and diverse cell functions. A group of integral membrane proteins-occludin, claudins, and junction adhesion molecules-interact with an increasingly complex array of tight junction plaque proteins not only to regulate paracellular solute and water flux but also to integrate such diverse processes as gene transcription, tumor suppression, cell proliferation, and cell polarity.
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              A Single Gene Product, Claudin-1 or -2, Reconstitutes Tight Junction Strands and Recruits Occludin in Fibroblasts

              Three integral membrane proteins, clau- din-1, -2, and occludin, are known to be components of tight junction (TJ) strands. To examine their ability to form TJ strands, their cDNAs were introduced into mouse L fibroblasts lacking TJs. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that both FLAG-tagged claudin-1 and -2 were highly concentrated at cell contact sites as planes through a homophilic interaction. In freeze-fracture replicas of these contact sites, well-developed networks of strands were identified that were similar to TJ strand networks in situ and were specifically labeled with anti-FLAG mAb. In glutaraldehyde-fixed samples, claudin-1–induced strands were largely associated with the protoplasmic (P) face as mostly continuous structures, whereas claudin-2–induced strands were discontinuous at the P face with complementary grooves at the extracellular (E) face which were occupied by chains of particles. Although occludin was also concentrated at cell contact sites as dots through its homophilic interaction, freeze-fracture replicas identified only a small number of short strands that were labeled with anti-occludin mAb. However, when occludin was cotransfected with claudin-1, it was concentrated at cell contact sites as planes to be incorporated into well- developed claudin-1–based strands. These findings suggested that claudin-1 and -2 are mainly responsible for TJ strand formation, and that occludin is an accessory protein in some function of TJ strands.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                08 July 2016
                : 10
                : 2227-2237
                Affiliations
                School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Chaoyang District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Shou-Ying Du; Yang Lu, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, No 6, Zhonghuan South Road, Wangjing, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100102, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 10 8473 8615, Fax +86 10 10 8473 8611, Email dushouying607816@ 123456163.com ; landocean28@ 123456163.com
                Article
                dddt-10-2227
                10.2147/DDDT.S110247
                4944921
                27468226
                © 2016 Zhang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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