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      Posterior corneal astigmatism: a review article


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          Most human eyes show at least a small degree of corneal astigmatism and it can arise from both surfaces of the cornea. The shape of the anterior corneal surface provides no definitive basis for knowing the toricity of the posterior surface. In the previous studies, average astigmatism of the posterior corneal surface was −0.26 to −0.78 diopter. The radius of the posterior corneal surface is less than the radius of the anterior corneal surface. Most studies have found a clear correlation between the anterior and posterior corneal asphericities and the asphericity of the posterior surface is independent of the vertex radius of curvature, refractive error and gender. In contrast to the anterior corneal surface, the asphericity of the posterior corneal surface varies significantly between meridians. The anterior and posterior corneal surface would have approximately parallel principal meridians and both of these surfaces are often flatter in the horizontal meridian than the vertical one. This is especially true in the higher degrees of corneal astigmatism, and then about 10% of any anterior corneal astigmatism is neutralized by an astigmatism arising from the posterior corneal surface. Although the second corneal surface only contributes to about 10% of the total refractive power of the eye, a precise knowledge of its morphology is needed for the correct diagnosis and monitoring the corneal diseases or the surgical interventions and in many eyes neglecting the posterior corneal surface measurement may lead to significant deviations from the corneal astigmatism estimation. In this article, we have reviewed the shape and the toricity of the posterior corneal surface and also the effect of age on it. We investigated the contribution of posterior corneal astigmatism to the total corneal astigmatism and evaluated the accuracy of corneal astigmatism estimation by neglecting the posterior corneal surface measurement.

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          Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement.

          In clinical measurement comparison of a new measurement technique with an established one is often needed to see whether they agree sufficiently for the new to replace the old. Such investigations are often analysed inappropriately, notably by using correlation coefficients. The use of correlation is misleading. An alternative approach, based on graphical techniques and simple calculations, is described, together with the relation between this analysis and the assessment of repeatability.
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            Contribution of posterior corneal astigmatism to total corneal astigmatism.

            To determine the contribution of posterior corneal astigmatism to total corneal astigmatism and the error in estimating total corneal astigmatism from anterior corneal measurements only using a dual-Scheimpflug analyzer. Cullen Eye Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA. Case series. Total corneal astigmatism was calculated using ray tracing, corneal astigmatism from simulated keratometry, anterior corneal astigmatism, and posterior corneal astigmatism, and the changes with age were analyzed. Vector analysis was used to assess the error produced by estimating total corneal astigmatism from anterior corneal measurements only. The study analyzed 715 corneas of 435 consecutive patients. The mean magnitude of posterior corneal astigmatism was -0.30 diopter (D). The steep corneal meridian was aligned vertically (60 to 120 degrees) in 51.9% of eyes for the anterior surface and in 86.6% for the posterior surface. With increasing age, the steep anterior corneal meridian tended to change from vertical to horizontal, while the steep posterior corneal meridian did not change. The magnitudes of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism were correlated when the steeper anterior meridian was aligned vertically but not when it was aligned horizontally. Anterior corneal measurements underestimated total corneal astigmatism by 0.22 @ 180 and exceeded 0.50 D in 5% of eyes. Ignoring posterior corneal astigmatism may yield incorrect estimation of total corneal astigmatism. Selecting toric intraocular lenses based on anterior corneal measurements could lead to overcorrection in eyes that have with-the-rule astigmatism and undercorrection in eyes that have against-the-rule astigmatism. The authors received research support from Ziemer Group. In addition, Dr. Koch has a financial interest with Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Calhoun Vision, Inc., NuLens, and Optimedica Corp. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Nature and nurture: the complex genetics of myopia and refractive error.

              The refractive errors, myopia and hyperopia, are optical defects of the visual system that can cause blurred vision. Uncorrected refractive errors are the most common causes of visual impairment worldwide. It is estimated that 2.5 billion people will be affected by myopia alone within the next decade. Experimental, epidemiological and clinical research has shown that refractive development is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Animal models have showed that eye growth and refractive maturation during infancy are tightly regulated by visually guided mechanisms. Observational data in human populations provide compelling evidence that environmental influences and individual behavioral factors play crucial roles in myopia susceptibility. Nevertheless, the majority of the variance of refractive error within populations is thought to be because of hereditary factors. Genetic linkage studies have mapped two dozen loci, while association studies have implicated more than 25 different genes in refractive variation. Many of these genes are involved in common biological pathways known to mediate extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and regulate connective tissue remodeling. Other associated genomic regions suggest novel mechanisms in the etiology of human myopia, such as mitochondrial-mediated cell death or photoreceptor-mediated visual signal transmission. Taken together, observational and experimental studies have revealed the complex nature of human refractive variation, which likely involves variants in several genes and functional pathways. Multiway interactions between genes and/or environmental factors may also be important in determining individual risks of myopia, and may help explain the complex pattern of refractive error in human populations. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

                Author and article information

                Clin Optom (Auckl)
                Clin Optom (Auckl)
                Clinical Optometry
                12 August 2019
                : 11
                : 85-96
                [1 ] Translational Ophthalmology Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran
                [2 ] School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Masoud Khorrami-NejadSchool of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , Damavand Street, Tehran, IranTel +98 217 754 2057Email op_khorrami@yahoo.com
                © 2019 Mohammadi et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                References: 150, Pages: 12

                cornea,posterior corneal astigmatism,corneal toricity


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