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      Happy Days: Positive Psychology interventions effects on affect in an N-of-1 trial Translated title: Efectos de las intervenciones de la Psicología Positiva en el afecto en un ensayo N = 1


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          Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) have been suggested as self-help tools to increase subjective well-being and happiness. However, most previous studies have been based on between-group comparisons, which are not informative with regard to trajectories of individual change over time. This study is a first attempt at examining whether completing frequently used PPIs — ‘Three Good Things in Life’, ‘Using Signature Strengths in a New Way’ and ‘Gratitude Visit’ —results in consistent changes in affect at the level of the individual. In an N-of-1-study design, participants were randomly allocated to one of six counterbalanced patterns of the PPIs over a 9–10 week period. The affective aspect of subjective well-being was measured daily using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). Hierarchical linear modelling showed significant changes in PANAS scores, but no statistically significant differential impact on positive affect of the PPIs, apart from a marginally significant time × intervention interaction for ‘Using Signature Strengths in a New Way’. This suggests that frequently used PPIs do not result in changes in affect over time. This finding questions recommending the use of PPIs as self-help tools.


          Las intervenciones de la Psicología Positiva (IPP) se han sugerido como herramientas de autoayuda para aumentar el bienestar subjetivo y la felicidad. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los estudios previos se ha basado en comparaciones entre grupos que no informan del cambio individual en el tiempo. Este estudio es un primer intento de examinar si las IPP habitualmente empleadas “Tres cosas buenas de la vida”, “Uso de las fortalezas características de un modo distinto” y “Visita de gratitud” provocan cambios en el afecto a nivel individual. En un diseño N = 1, los participantes fueron asignados al azar a uno de los seis patrones contrabalanceados de las IPP durante 9-10 semanas. El aspecto afectivo del bienestar subjetivo se midió diariamente usando la Escala de Afecto Positivo y Afecto Negativo (PANAS). El modelo jerárquico lineal mostró cambios estadísticamente significativos en las puntuaciones PANAS, pero ningún efecto diferencial estadísticamente significativo en el afecto positivo, excepto la interacción tiempo x intervención para “fortalezas características”. Los resultados sugieren que las IPP empleadas habitualmente no provocan cambios en el afecto a lo largo del tiempo. Este hallazgo cuestiona el uso de las IPP como herramientas de autoayuda.

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          The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS): construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-clinical sample.

          To evaluate the reliability and validity of the PANAS (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988b) and provide normative data. Cross-sectional and correlational. The PANAS was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1,003). Competing models of the latent structure of the PANAS were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Regression and correlational analysis were used to determine the influence of demographic variables on PANAS scores as well as the relationship between the PANAS with measures of depression and anxiety (the HADS and the DASS). The best-fitting model (robust comparative fit index = .94) of the latent structure of the PANAS consisted of two correlated factors corresponding to the PA and NA scales, and permitted correlated error between items drawn from the same mood subcategories (Zevon & Tellegen, 1982). Demographic variables had only very modest influences on PANAS scores and the PANAS exhibited measurement invariance across demographic subgroups. The reliability of the PANAS was high, and the pattern of relationships between the PANAS and the DASS and HADS were consistent with tripartite theory. The PANAS is a reliable and valid measure of the constructs it was intended to assess, although the hypothesis of complete independence between PA and NA must be rejected. The utility of this measure is enhanced by the provision of large-scale normative data. Copyright 2004 The British Psychological Society
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            Positive psychotherapy.

            Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported them to be "life-changing." Delivered on the Web, positive psychology exercises relieved depressive symptoms for at least 6 months compared with placebo interventions, the effects of which lasted less than a week. In severe depression, the effects of these Web exercises were particularly striking. This address reports two preliminary studies: In the first, PPT delivered to groups significantly decreased levels of mild-to-moderate depression through 1-year follow-up. In the second, PPT delivered to individuals produced higher remission rates than did treatment as usual and treatment as usual plus medication among outpatients with major depressive disorder. Together, these studies suggest that treatments for depression may usefully be supplemented by exercises that explicitly increase positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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              The New Person-Specific Paradigm in Psychology


                Author and article information

                Int J Clin Health Psychol
                Int J Clin Health Psychol
                International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology : IJCHP
                Asociacion Espanola de Psicologia Conductual
                08 September 2015
                Jan-Apr 2016
                08 September 2015
                : 16
                : 1
                : 21-29
                [0005]University of Tasmania, Australia
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: University of Tasmania, Psychology, School of Medicine, Private Bag 30, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia. Benjamin.schuez@ 123456utas.edu.au
                © 2015 Asociación Espa˜nola de Psicología Conductual. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                : 22 April 2015
                : 30 July 2015
                Original article

                positive affect,positive psychology interventions,subjective well-being,multilevel modeling,cuasi-experimental study,afecto positivo,intervenciones de psicología positiva,bienestar subjetivo,modelos multinivel,estudio cuasi-experimental


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