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      Renoprotective Effects of Captopril in Hypertension Induced by Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition in Experimental Nephritis

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          Objective: To investigate effects of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in experimental nephritis during chronic inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) synthase. Methods: Rats with and without autoimmune Heymann nephritis were treated with a NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME (50 mg/100 ml) and/or an ACE inhibitor captopril (20 mg/100 ml) in drinking water for 12 weeks. Urinary cGMP excretion was used as an indirect measure of NO activity. Blood pressure, urinary albumin, nitrite and nitrate levels, plasma ANP, and plasma renin activity were measured. Kidneys were examined with light microscopy and immunohistochemical methods. Results: Captopril treatment protected rats receiving L-NAME and none of the captopril-treated rats died. Mortality was greatest in the nephritis-L-NAME (57%) and L-NAME (43%) groups. Captopril normalized cGMP excretion, blood pressure, and prevented partly the appearance of albuminuria. Peritubular infiltration of mononuclear cells was clearly enhanced in the nephritis-L-NAME group (found in 80% of the rats) as compared with the nephritis (20%), L-NAME (40%), and control (0%) groups. The peritubular cell infiltration caused by L-NAME was prevented by captopril treatment. L-NAME-induced hypertension was associated with cardiac hypertrophy and this was prevented by captopril. Conclusions: NO may play an important renoprotective role in disease progression of chronic membranous glomerulonephritis. Captopril prevents L-NAME-induced hypertension, improves survival, and ameliorates renal damage in this type of nephritis. Dysfunction of renal NO pathways may be an important factor causing progressive renal damage in chronic nephritis. Our results suggest that the dysfunctional renal NO system may be beneficially activated by ACE inhibitors.

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          The effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition on diabetic nephropathy. The Collaborative Study Group.

          Renal function declines progressively in patients who have diabetic nephropathy, and the decline may be slowed by antihypertensive drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether captopril has kidney-protecting properties independent of its effect on blood pressure in diabetic nephropathy. We performed a randomized, controlled trial comparing captopril with placebo in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in whom urinary protein excretion was > or = 500 mg per day and the serum creatinine concentration was or = 1.5 mg per deciliter, creatinine clearance declined at a rate of 23 +/- 25 percent per year in the captopril group and at a rate of 37 +/- 25 percent per year in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Captopril treatment was associated with a 50 percent reduction in the risk of the combined end points of death, dialysis, and transplantation that was independent of the small disparity in blood pressure between the groups. Captopril protects against deterioration in renal function in insulin-dependent diabetic nephropathy and is significantly more effective than blood-pressure control alone.

            Author and article information

            S. Karger AG
            10 February 1999
            : 81
            : 2
            : 221-229
            aMinerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, bDepartment of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital and cDepartment of Bacteriology and Immunology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki, Finland
            45280 Nephron 1999;81:221–229
            © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

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            Figures: 5, Tables: 4, References: 36, Pages: 9
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