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      QTc Prolongation after Ventricular Septal Defect Repair in Infants

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          Background and Objectives

          Prolonging of the corrected QT interval (QTc) has been reported after cardiac surgery in some studies. However, there have not been many studies on infant open cardiac surgery for ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair. This study was performed to define the changes in QTc and to find related post-surgery factors in this patient group.

          Subjects and Methods

          From 2008 to 2012, 154 infants underwent VSD repair at the Severance Cardiovascular Hospital. This study includes 105 of these cases. QTc was measured in these patients retrospectively. Demographic data and peri-procedural data, such as Aristotle score, cross-clamp time and bypass time, were analyzed. The exclusion criteria included multiple and small VSDs that underwent direct closure.


          Mean post-operative QTc was increased compared to the pre-operative measurements (from 413.6±2.3 to 444.9±2.5, p<0.001). In multiple linear regression, the comprehensive Aristotle score was associated with increasing QTc (p=0.047). The incidence of transient arrhythmia, such as atrial tachycardia, junctional ectopic tachycardia, premature atrial contraction, or premature ventricular contraction, was associated with QTc prolongation (p=0.005). Prolonged QTc was also associated with cross-clamp time (p=0.008) and low weight (p=0.042). Total length of stay at the intensive care unit and intubation time after surgery were not associated with QTc prolongation.


          Prolonged QTc could be seen after VSD repair in infants. This phenomenon was associated with peri-procedural factors such as the Aristotle score and cross-clamp time. Patients with QTc prolongation after cardiac surgery had an increased tendency towards arrhythmogenicity in the post-operative period.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Drug-induced prolongation of the QT interval.

           Dan Roden (2004)
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            Hazards of postoperative atrial arrhythmias.

            Between January 1, 1986, and December 31, 1991, 4,507 adult patients underwent cardiac surgical procedures requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Of these patients, 3,983 patients who did not undergo operation for supraventricular tachycardia and who were in normal sinus rhythm preoperatively form the study group for the present study. Postoperatively, all patients were monitored continuously for the development of arrhythmias until the time of hospital discharge. The incidence of atrial arrhythmias requiring treatment for the most commonly performed operative procedures were as follows: coronary artery bypass grafting, 31.9%; coronary artery bypass grafting and mitral valve replacement, 63.6%; coronary artery bypass grafting and aortic valve replacement, 48.8%; and heart transplantation, 11.1%. For all patients considered collectively, the risk factors associated with an increased incidence of postoperative atrial arrhythmias (p < 0.05 by multivariate logistic regression) included increasing patient age, preoperative use of digoxin, history of rheumatic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and increasing aortic cross-clamp time. Postoperative atrial fibrillation was associated with an increased incidence of postoperative stroke (3.3% versus 1.4%; p < 0.0005), increased length of hospitalization in the intensive care unit (5.7 versus 3.4 days; p = 0.001) and postoperative nursing ward (10.9 versus 7.5 days; p = 0.0001), increased incidence of postoperative ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (9.2% versus 4.0%; p < 0.0005), and an increased need for placement of a permanent pacemaker (3.7% versus 1.6%; p < 0.0005). These data provide a basis for targeting specific patient subgroups for prospective, randomized trials of therapeutic modalities designed to decrease the incidence of postoperative atrial arrhythmias.
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              Inflammatory response after coronary revascularization with or without cardiopulmonary bypass.

              We sought to investigate the effect of multiple coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with or without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the perioperative inflammatory response. Sixty patients undergoing CABG were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (A) on pump with conventional CPB and cardioplegic arrest, and (B) off pump on the beating heart. Serum samples were collected for estimation of neutrophil elastase, interleukin 8 (IL-8), C3a, and C5a preoperatively and at 1, 4, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Furthermore, white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, and monocyte counts were carried out preoperatively and at 1, 12, 36 and 60 hours postoperatively. Overall incidence of infection and perioperative clinical outcome were also recorded. The groups were similar in terms of age, weight, gender ratio, extent of coronary disease, left ventricular function, and number of grafts per patient. Neutrophil elastase concentration peaked early after CPB in the on-pump group, with a decline with time. Repeated-measures analysis of variance between groups and comparisons at each time point (modified Bonferroni) showed elastase concentrations were significantly higher in the on-pump than the off-pump group (both p < 0.0001). IL-8 increased significantly after surgery in the on-pump group, with no decline during the observation period (p = 0.01 vs off pump). C3a and C5a rose early after surgery in both groups when compared with baseline values. Postoperative WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts were significantly higher in the on-pump than the off-pump group (p < 0.01). Finally, the incidence of postoperative overall infections was significantly higher in the on-pump group (p < 0.0001 vs off pump). CABG on the beating heart is associated with a significant reduction in inflammatory response and postoperative infection when compared with conventional revascularization with CPB and cardioplegic arrest.

                Author and article information

                Korean Circ J
                Korean Circ J
                Korean Circulation Journal
                The Korean Society of Cardiology
                December 2013
                20 December 2013
                : 43
                : 12
                : 825-829
                [1 ]Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Congenital Heart Disease Center, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                [2 ]Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Congenital Heart Disease Center, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Nam Kyun Kim, MD, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752, Korea. Tel: 82-2-2228-8280, Fax: 82-2-393-3080, pednk@
                Copyright © 2013 The Korean Society of Cardiology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine

                electrocardiography, ventricular septal defect, infant


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