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      COVID-19-Versorgung – Strategien der Taskforce Coronavirus und Erfahrungen von den ersten 115 Fällen am Universitätsklinikum Freiburg Translated title: COVID-19-Response – Strategies of the Task-Force Coronavirus and experiences upon implementation in the management of 115 cases at the University Medical Center Freiburg

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          Zusammenfassung

          Hintergrund Das neue, pandemische Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 und die damit einhergehende Erkrankung COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) stellt die medizinischen Versorgungssysteme vor große Herausforderungen. Die vorliegende Arbeit fasst die Strategie, Organisation und Maßnahmen der COVID-Taskforce des Universitätsklinikums Freiburg zusammen und berichtet über Erfahrungen und Behandlungsergebnisse von der Versorgung der ersten 115 COVID-19-Patienten.

          Methoden  Retrospektive, narrative Prozessbeschreibung und -analyse des Zeitraums Ende Januar bis Anfang April 2020, durchgeführt unter Mitwirken der beteiligten Departments, Kliniken und Institute des Universitätsklinikums Freiburg. Ergänzend erfolgte eine retrospektive Beobachtungsstudie mit deskriptiver statistischer Auswertung der epidemiologischen und klinischen Daten aller bis 31. März 2020 hospitalisierten COVID-19-Patienten.

          Ergebnisse  Durch eine interdisziplinär zusammengesetzte Taskforce Coronavirus wurden Maßnahmen in den Bereichen ambulante Testung und Beratung, Separierung der Patientenströme sowie Eskalation der Versorgungskapazitäten auf Normal- und Intensivstationen im Sinne eines dynamischen Stufenmodells angeregt und umgesetzt. Die Versorgung der ersten 115 Patienten gelang somit ohne Entstehung von Engpässen.

          Diskussion  Durch Zusammenwirken sämtlicher Disziplinen und Abteilungen des Universitätsklinikums Freiburg konnte eine adäquate Versorgung von COVID-19-Patienten sichergestellt und die Handlungsfähigkeit des Klinikums in der aktuellen Ausbruchsituation erhalten werden.

          Abstract

          Background  The new pandemic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 causing coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) poses immense challenges to health care systems worldwide. In the current manuscript we summarize the strategies, organisational approaches and actions of the Task-force Coronavirus at the University Medical Center Freiburg. We also report on experiences with implementation of these approaches and treatment outcomes in the first 115 COVID patients.

          Methods  Retrospective, narrative process description and analysis of the time period between end of January and beginning of April 2020, performed by representatives of the involved departments and institutes. Additionally a retrospective observational cohort study with descriptive analysis of epidemiological and clinical data of COVID patients admitted until March 31st was performed.

          Results  A multidisciplinary Task-force Coronavirus initiated measures concerning outpatient testing and counseling, reorganisation and separation of patient flow processes alongside with substantial escalation of inpatient capacities on regular wards and intensive care units. Within the framework of the resulting dynamic care model, 115 patients suffering from COVID could be treated without shortages in staff or bed capacities.

          Dicussion  In the upcoming pandemic, adequate COVID management and care could be secured by a collaborative approach with inclusion of administrative departments, clinical disciplines and theoretical institutes of the University Medical Center Freiburg.

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          Most cited references8

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          Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China

          Abstract Background Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. Methods We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Results The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. Conclusions During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.)
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            Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study

            Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p<0·0001), and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL (18·42, 2·64–128·55; p=0·0033) on admission. Median duration of viral shedding was 20·0 days (IQR 17·0–24·0) in survivors, but SARS-CoV-2 was detectable until death in non-survivors. The longest observed duration of viral shedding in survivors was 37 days. Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.
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              A Trial of Lopinavir–Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19

              Abstract Background No therapeutics have yet been proven effective for the treatment of severe illness caused by SARS-CoV-2. Methods We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label trial involving hospitalized adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, which causes the respiratory illness Covid-19, and an oxygen saturation (Sao 2) of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or a ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen (Pao 2) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio 2) of less than 300 mm Hg. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either lopinavir–ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg, respectively) twice a day for 14 days, in addition to standard care, or standard care alone. The primary end point was the time to clinical improvement, defined as the time from randomization to either an improvement of two points on a seven-category ordinal scale or discharge from the hospital, whichever came first. Results A total of 199 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent randomization; 99 were assigned to the lopinavir–ritonavir group, and 100 to the standard-care group. Treatment with lopinavir–ritonavir was not associated with a difference from standard care in the time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio for clinical improvement, 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.72). Mortality at 28 days was similar in the lopinavir–ritonavir group and the standard-care group (19.2% vs. 25.0%; difference, −5.8 percentage points; 95% CI, −17.3 to 5.7). The percentages of patients with detectable viral RNA at various time points were similar. In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, lopinavir–ritonavir led to a median time to clinical improvement that was shorter by 1 day than that observed with standard care (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.91). Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common in the lopinavir–ritonavir group, but serious adverse events were more common in the standard-care group. Lopinavir–ritonavir treatment was stopped early in 13 patients (13.8%) because of adverse events. Conclusions In hospitalized adult patients with severe Covid-19, no benefit was observed with lopinavir–ritonavir treatment beyond standard care. Future trials in patients with severe illness may help to confirm or exclude the possibility of a treatment benefit. (Funded by Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development and others; Chinese Clinical Trial Register number, ChiCTR2000029308.)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Dtsch Med Wochenschr
                Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr
                10.1055/s-00000011
                Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
                © Georg Thieme Verlag KG (Stuttgart · New York )
                0012-0472
                1439-4413
                May 2020
                28 April 2020
                : 145
                : 10
                : 657-664
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Klinik für Innere Medizin II – Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie, Endokrinologie, Infektiologie, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg
                [2 ]Universitäts-Notfallzentrum (UNZ), Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg
                [3 ]Institut für Infektionsprävention und Krankenhaushygiene, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg
                [4 ]Universitäts-Herzzentrum Freiburg-Bad Krozingen, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg
                [5 ]Klinik für Anästhesiologie und Intensivmedizin, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg
                Author notes
                Korrespondenzadresse Prof. Dr. med. Siegbert Rieg Abteilung Infektiologie, Klinik für Innere Medizin II Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg Hugstetter Straße 5579106 Freiburg++ 49/7 61/27 01 81 90++ 49/7 61/27 01 82 00 siegbert.rieg@ 123456uniklinik-freiburg.de
                Article
                10.1055/a-1147-6244
                7295295
                32344439
                fad42408-e998-42e2-a27f-d5c7044f21da
                Copyright @ 2020

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

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                Categories
                Originalarbeit

                coronavirus,covid-19,komorbidität,versorgungsstrategien,behandlung,überleben,comorbidities,models of care,management,survival

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