+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Bottled Water from National Manufacturers in Somaliland: Water Quality and Health Implications

      In review

        , 1 , 1

      ScienceOpen Preprints


      Drinking Water, Fluoride, Iodine , Mineral Water , Somali , Water quality

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          (1) Background: Somaliland, the breakaway republic of Northern Somalia, has a growing, commercial bottled water industry, but no available data on end-user water quality. The objective of this study was to do a public health quality assessment of popular brands of bottled water available in Somaliland. (2) Method: Between June and December 2010, 36 bottles with water from eight brands were purposefully sampled from shops in all four parts of Hargeisa city and analysed for 22 physico-chemical, five microbiological and nine informational variables. The findings were compared with international guidelines and the composition tables of the respective brands. (3) Results: The production and expiry dates on 50% of the bottles were inadequately presented. All of the physico-chemical measurements were within healthy limits; however, average pH was 5.6. Discrepancies between the physico-chemical analysis results and the composition table values provided on the bottles were large and significant (p = .018): Individual mineral concentrations could be as low as 1% of labelled values. Undesirable growth of total coliforms where found in 50% of all samples. (4) Conclusions: This study indicates a need for improved cleanliness in the production and distribution system, consistent production date labelling and regular physico-chemical analysis leading to accurate composition tables. There is a need for external monitoring of the quality of water delivered from the bottled water companies in Somaliland in order to prevent adverse public health effects.

          Related collections

          Author and article information

          ScienceOpen Preprints
          22 October 2020
          [1 ] Department of Community Medicine and Global Health, Institute of Health and Society, Medical faculty, University of Oslo.

          This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0 , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com .

          The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


          Drinking Water, Fluoride, Iodine , Mineral Water , Somali , Water quality


          Comment on this article