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      Meal replacement based on Human Ration modulates metabolic risk factors during body weight loss: a randomized controlled trial

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          Gluteofemoral body fat as a determinant of metabolic health.

          Body fat distribution is an important metabolic and cardiovascular risk factor, because the proportion of abdominal to gluteofemoral body fat correlates with obesity-associated diseases and mortality. Here, we review the evidence and possible mechanisms that support a specific protective role of gluteofemoral body fat. Population studies show that an increased gluteofemoral fat mass is independently associated with a protective lipid and glucose profile, as well as a decrease in cardiovascular and metabolic risk. Studies of adipose tissue physiology in vitro and in vivo confirm distinct properties of the gluteofemoral fat depot with regards to lipolysis and fatty acid uptake: in day-to-day metabolism it appears to be more passive than the abdominal depot and it exerts its protective properties by long-term fatty acid storage. Further, a beneficial adipokine profile is associated with gluteofemoral fat. Leptin and adiponectin levels are positively associated with gluteofemoral fat while the level of inflammatory cytokines is negatively associated. Finally, loss of gluteofemoral fat, as observed in Cushing's syndrome and lipodystrophy is associated with an increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk. This underlines gluteofemoral fat's role as a determinant of health by the long-term entrapment of excess fatty acids, thus protecting from the adverse effects associated with ectopic fat deposition.
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            Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volumes are cross-sectionally related to markers of inflammation and oxidative stress: the Framingham Heart Study.

            Excess adiposity is associated with greater systemic inflammation. Whether visceral adiposity is more proinflammatory than subcutaneous abdominal adiposity is unclear. We examined the relations of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), assessed by multidetector computerized tomography, to circulating inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in 1250 Framingham Heart Study participants (52% women; age 60+/-9 years). Biomarkers were examined in relation to increments of SAT and VAT after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, menopause, hormone replacement therapy, alcohol, and aspirin use; additional models included body mass index and waist circumference. SAT and VAT were positively and similarly (with respect to strength of association) related to C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, interleukin-6, P-selectin, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (multivariable model R2 0.06 to 0.28 [SAT] and 0.07 to 0.29 [VAT]). However, compared with SAT, VAT was more highly associated with urinary isoprostanes and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (SAT versus VAT comparison: isoprostanes, R2 0.07 versus 0.10, P=0.002; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, R2 0.07 versus 0.08, P=0.04). When body mass index and waist circumference were added to the models, VAT remained significantly associated with only C-reactive protein (P=0.0003 for women; P=0.006 for men), interleukin-6 (P=0.01), isoprostanes (P=0.0002), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (P=0.008); SAT only remained associated with fibrinogen (P=0.01). The present cross-sectional data support an association between both SAT and VAT with inflammation and oxidative stress. The data suggest that the contribution of visceral fat to inflammation may not be completely accounted for by clinical measures of obesity (body mass index and waist circumference).
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              Effects of dietary fibers on disturbances clustered in the metabolic syndrome.

              Because of its growing prevalence in Western countries, the metabolic syndrome, a common metabolic disorder that clusters a constellation of abnormalities, including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, is emerging as one of the most important public health problems in the world, taking into account that it is a major risk factor mainly for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, and also for many types of cancer. Although the pathogenesis of this syndrome is complex and not fully understood, obesity and insulin resistance, accompanied by an altered profile of number of hormones and cytokines produced by the adipose tissue, seem to be the main causative agents. A prime therapeutic approach to the prevention and treatment of this syndrome involves lifestyle changes. Among dietary modifications, dietary fiber intake could play an interesting role in the management of metabolic syndrome through different mechanisms related to its dietary sources, specific chemical structure and physical properties, or fermentability in the gut. According to all of these variables, the different types of dietary fibers have been reported to take part in the control of body weight, glucose and lipid homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and in the regulation of many inflammation markers involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, and which are also considered to be among its features.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Journal of Nutrition
                Eur J Nutr
                Springer Nature
                1436-6207
                1436-6215
                April 2014
                October 29 2013
                : 53
                : 3
                : 939-950
                Article
                10.1007/s00394-013-0598-3
                faf141a3-b058-4908-a5e2-871c49833353
                © 2013
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00394-013-0598-3

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