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      Dysregulation of microRNA-214 and PTEN contributes to the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension

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          Abstract

          Hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, which is characterized by vascular remodeling of blood vessels, is an important complication in COPD. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-214 was differentially expressed by screening 13 candidate miRNAs in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Additionally, using luciferase assay in PASMCs, we found that phosphatase-and-tensin homolog (PTEN) was a target of miR-214. Furthermore, the expression of PTEN was found to be substantially downregulated in PASMCs from COPD patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) compared with normal controls by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry, and Western blot. In addition, we transfected PASMCs with miR-214 mimics, using real-time PCR and Western blotting, to confirm the miRNA/mRNA relationship. Furthermore, the introduction of miR-214 significantly promoted the proliferation of PASMCs by suppressing apoptosis of the cells, which was mediated by the downregulation of PTEN. Exposure to hypoxia significantly increased the expression of miR-214 and decreased the expression of PTEN in PASMCs, and its proliferation was significantly promoted. Such effects could be significantly attenuated by the introduction of miR-214 inhibitors, which significantly downregulated miR-214 expression and upregulated the expression of PTEN. In conclusion, hypoxia-induced upregulation of miR-214 was found to promote PH development by targeting PTEN in PASMCs, and miR-214 could be a promising diagnostic tool and novel therapeutic target in the management of hypoxia-induced PH in COPD.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Control of translation and mRNA degradation by miRNAs and siRNAs.

          The control of translation and mRNA degradation is an important part of the regulation of gene expression. It is now clear that small RNA molecules are common and effective modulators of gene expression in many eukaryotic cells. These small RNAs that control gene expression can be either endogenous or exogenous micro RNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and can affect mRNA degradation and translation, as well as chromatin structure, thereby having impacts on transcription rates. In this review, we discuss possible mechanisms by which miRNAs control translation and mRNA degradation. An emerging theme is that miRNAs, and siRNAs to some extent, target mRNAs to the general eukaryotic machinery for mRNA degradation and translation control.
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            A microRNA DNA methylation signature for human cancer metastasis.

            MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that can contribute to cancer development and progression by acting as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. Recent studies have also linked different sets of miRNAs to metastasis through either the promotion or suppression of this malignant process. Interestingly, epigenetic silencing of miRNAs with tumor suppressor features by CpG island hypermethylation is also emerging as a common hallmark of human tumors. Thus, we wondered whether there was a miRNA hypermethylation profile characteristic of human metastasis. We used a pharmacological and genomic approach to reveal this aberrant epigenetic silencing program by treating lymph node metastatic cancer cells with a DNA demethylating agent followed by hybridization to an expression microarray. Among the miRNAs that were reactivated upon drug treatment, miR-148a, miR-34b/c, and miR-9 were found to undergo specific hypermethylation-associated silencing in cancer cells compared with normal tissues. The reintroduction of miR-148a and miR-34b/c in cancer cells with epigenetic inactivation inhibited their motility, reduced tumor growth, and inhibited metastasis formation in xenograft models, with an associated down-regulation of the miRNA oncogenic target genes, such as C-MYC, E2F3, CDK6, and TGIF2. Most important, the involvement of miR-148a, miR-34b/c, and miR-9 hypermethylation in metastasis formation was also suggested in human primary malignancies (n = 207) because it was significantly associated with the appearance of lymph node metastasis. Our findings indicate that DNA methylation-associated silencing of tumor suppressor miRNAs contributes to the development of human cancer metastasis.
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              TarBase 6.0: capturing the exponential growth of miRNA targets with experimental support

              As the relevant literature and the number of experiments increase at a super linear rate, databases that curate and collect experimentally verified microRNA (miRNA) targets have gradually emerged. These databases attempt to provide efficient access to this wealth of experimental data, which is scattered in thousands of manuscripts. Aim of TarBase 6.0 (http://www.microrna.gr/tarbase) is to face this challenge by providing a significant increase of available miRNA targets derived from all contemporary experimental techniques (gene specific and high-throughput), while incorporating a powerful set of tools in a user-friendly interface. TarBase 6.0 hosts detailed information for each miRNA–gene interaction, ranging from miRNA- and gene-related facts to information specific to their interaction, the experimental validation methodologies and their outcomes. All database entries are enriched with function-related data, as well as general information derived from external databases such as UniProt, Ensembl and RefSeq. DIANA microT miRNA target prediction scores and the relevant prediction details are available for each interaction. TarBase 6.0 hosts the largest collection of manually curated experimentally validated miRNA–gene interactions (more than 65 000 targets), presenting a 16.5–175-fold increase over other available manually curated databases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2017
                19 June 2017
                : 12
                : 1781-1791
                Affiliations
                Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ling Tao, Department of Cardiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, 15 Changlexi Street, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032, People’s Republic of China, Email phypertension@ 123456163.com
                Article
                copd-12-1781
                10.2147/COPD.S104627
                5485897
                © 2017 Liu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                hypoxia, pulmonary hypertension, mir-214, pten

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