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      The change in motivating factors influencing commencement, adherence and retention to a supervised resistance training programme in previously sedentary post-menopausal women: a prospective cohort study

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          Understanding motivators for exercise participation in post-menopausal women may impact retention to exercise programmes and inform intervention trial designs. The purpose of this investigation was to assess self-reported motivational factors influencing adherence and retention to a 24-week progressive resistance training programme.


          Post-menopausal females (n = 34) were passively recruited to undertake a 24-week progressive resistance training protocol, in small-group sessions, on three non-consecutive days of the week. Attendance was recorded by the researcher. Qualitative reports were sourced from the sample for four phases of the study: pre-study (prior to week 1), recruitment (week 1), during study (weeks 2 – 24), and post-intervention (beyond week 24). Responses were categorised according to ten descriptors: specific health index improvement, education, flexibility of time, social contact, conscience (loyalty to the researcher), wellness, weight management, organisation parameters (pertaining to the study programme) and enjoyment of the exercises.


          Of the initial sample, 76.5% (n = 26) met the specified ≥80% attendance criterion. The primary findings were that motivation to volunteer for the study was driven by a perceived need for a structured exercise programme (50% of respondents). A commitment to the researcher was the primary motivator for continued adherence to the study for 50% of participants. Social contact with other participants was cited by 60% of the sample as the primary reason for adherence for the full duration of 24 weeks. A desire to maintain the “wellness” derived from the programme was cited by 60% as a reason for continuing an exercise routine post-study.


          This study identified that routine and supervision initially attract women to exercise programmes, while social cohesion of the group setting contributes to retention over time. Understanding the changing nature of motivating factors may contribute to better overall adherence and retention to exercise programmes and interventions.

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          Most cited references 34

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          American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

          The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide an overview of issues critical to understanding the importance of exercise and physical activity in older adult populations. The Position Stand is divided into three sections: Section 1 briefly reviews the structural and functional changes that characterize normal human aging, Section 2 considers the extent to which exercise and physical activity can influence the aging process, and Section 3 summarizes the benefits of both long-term exercise and physical activity and shorter-duration exercise programs on health and functional capacity. Although no amount of physical activity can stop the biological aging process, there is evidence that regular exercise can minimize the physiological effects of an otherwise sedentary lifestyle and increase active life expectancy by limiting the development and progression of chronic disease and disabling conditions. There is also emerging evidence for significant psychological and cognitive benefits accruing from regular exercise participation by older adults. Ideally, exercise prescription for older adults should include aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening exercises, and flexibility exercises. The evidence reviewed in this Position Stand is generally consistent with prior American College of Sports Medicine statements on the types and amounts of physical activity recommended for older adults as well as the recently published 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. All older adults should engage in regular physical activity and avoid an inactive lifestyle.
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            Barriers and motivations to exercise in older adults.

            Although exercise is an established component in the management of many chronic diseases associated with aging, activity levels tend to progressively decline with increasing age. Given the growing proportion of older adults, these suboptimal levels of physical activity represent an increasing public health problem. The predicators of adherence elucidated in younger adults are unreliable in elderly populations. Age-specific barriers and motivators unique to this cohort are relevant and must be acknowledged. The identification of reliable predictors of exercise adherence will allow healthcare providers to effectively intervene and change patterns of physical activity in sedentary elderly. In particular, because older patients respect their physician's advice and have regular contact with their family doctor, physicians can play a key and pivotal role in the initiation and maintenance of exercise behavior among the older population.
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              Exenatide effects on diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular risk factors and hepatic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes treated for at least 3 years.

              Exenatide, an incretin mimetic for adjunctive treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), reduced hemoglobin A(1c) (A1C) and weight in clinical trials. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of > or = 3 years exenatide therapy on glycemic control, body weight, cardiometabolic markers, and safety. Patients from three placebo-controlled trials and their open-label extensions were enrolled into one open-ended, open-label clinical trial. Patients were randomized to twice daily (BID) placebo, 5 mug exenatide, or 10 mug exenatide for 30 weeks, followed by 5 mug exenatide BID for 4 weeks, then 10 mug exenatide BID for > or = 3 years of exenatide exposure. Patients continued metformin and/or sulfonylureas. 217 patients (64% male, age 58 +/- 10 years, weight 99 +/- 18 kg, BMI 34 +/- 5 kg/m(2), A1C 8.2 +/- 1.0% [mean +/- SD]) completed 3 years of exenatide exposure. Reductions in A1C from baseline to week 12 (-1.1 +/- 0.1% [mean +/- SEM]) were sustained to 3 years (-1.0 +/- 0.1%; p or = 3 years in T2DM patients resulted in sustained improvements in glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, and hepatic biomarkers, coupled with progressive weight reduction.

                Author and article information

                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                12 March 2015
                12 March 2015
                : 15
                Department of Human Kinetics and Ergonomics, Rhodes University, African Street, PO Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140 South Africa
                © Viljoen and Christie; licensee BioMed Central. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2015

                Public health

                strength training, retention, adherence, postmenopause, physical activity


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