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      Folic Acid Food Fortification—Its History, Effect, Concerns, and Future Directions

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          Abstract

          Periconceptional intake of folic acid is known to reduce a woman’s risk of having an infant affected by a neural tube birth defect (NTD). National programs to mandate fortification of food with folic acid have reduced the prevalence of NTDs worldwide. Uncertainty surrounding possible unintended consequences has led to concerns about higher folic acid intake and food fortification programs. This uncertainty emphasizes the need to continually monitor fortification programs for accurate measures of their effect and the ability to address concerns as they arise. This review highlights the history, effect, concerns, and future directions of folic acid food fortification programs.

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          Most cited references 96

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          Epigenetics in cancer.

           S. Sharma,  T. Kelly,  P. Jones (2010)
          Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Global changes in the epigenetic landscape are a hallmark of cancer. The initiation and progression of cancer, traditionally seen as a genetic disease, is now realized to involve epigenetic abnormalities along with genetic alterations. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning and non-coding RNAs, specifically microRNA expression. The reversible nature of epigenetic aberrations has led to the emergence of the promising field of epigenetic therapy, which is already making progress with the recent FDA approval of three epigenetic drugs for cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of alterations in the epigenetic landscape that occur in cancer compared with normal cells, the roles of these changes in cancer initiation and progression, including the cancer stem cell model, and the potential use of this knowledge in designing more effective treatment strategies.
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            DNA hypermethylation in tumorigenesis: epigenetics joins genetics.

            Recently, the concept that epigenetic, as well as genetic, events might be central to the evolution of human cancer is re-emerging. Cancers often exhibit an aberrant methylation of gene promoter regions that is associated with loss of gene function. This DNA change constitutes a heritable state, not mediated by altered nucleotide sequence, that appears to be tightly linked to the formation of transcriptionally repressive chromatin. This epigenetic process acts as an alternative to mutations to disrupt tumor-suppressor gene function and can predispose to genetic alterations through inactivating DNA-repair genes. Dissecting the molecular processes that mediate these methylation changes will enhance our understanding of chromatin modeling and gene regulation and might present novel possibilities for cancer therapy. Methylation changes constitute potentially sensitive molecular markers to define risk states, monitor prevention strategies, achieve early diagnosis, and track the prognosis of cancer.
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              Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group.

              A randomised double-blind prevention trial with a factorial design was conducted at 33 centres in seven countries to determine whether supplementation with folic acid (one of the vitamins in the B group) or a mixture of seven other vitamins (A,D,B1,B2,B6,C and nicotinamide) around the time of conception can prevent neural tube defects (anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocele). A total of 1817 women at high risk of having a pregnancy with a neural tube defect, because of a previous affected pregnancy, were allocated at random to one of four groups--namely, folic acid, other vitamins, both, or neither. 1195 had a completed pregnancy in which the fetus or infant was known to have or not have a neural tube defect; 27 of these had a known neural tube defect, 6 in the folic acid groups and 21 in the two other groups, a 72% protective effect (relative risk 0.28, 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.71). The other vitamins showed no significant protective effect (relative risk 0.80, 95% Cl 0.32-1.72). There was no demonstrable harm from the folic acid supplementation, though the ability of the study to detect rare or slight adverse effects was limited. Folic acid supplementation starting before pregnancy can now be firmly recommended for all women who have had an affected pregnancy, and public health measures should be taken to ensure that the diet of all women who may bear children contains an adequate amount of folic acid.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                15 March 2011
                March 2011
                : 3
                : 3
                : 370-384
                Affiliations
                [1 ]The Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30033, USA; Email: rjb1@ 123456cdc.gov
                [2 ]The Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; Email: folate@ 123456ufl.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; Email: kvc3@ 123456cdc.gov ; Tel.: +1-404-498-3893.
                Article
                nutrients-03-00370
                10.3390/nu3030370
                3257747
                22254102
                © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Nutrition & Dietetics

                flour fortification, cancer, neural tube defects, epigenetics, folic acid

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