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      Fractional Flow Reserve to Determine the Appropriateness of Angioplasty in Moderate Coronary Stenosis : A Randomized Trial

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          Abstract

          Background —PTCA of a coronary stenosis without documented ischemia at noninvasive stress testing is often performed, but its benefit is unproven. Coronary pressure–derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an invasive index of stenosis severity that is a reliable substitute for noninvasive stress testing. A value of 0.75 identifies stenoses with hemodynamic significance.

          Methods and Results —In 325 patients for whom PTCA was planned and who did not have documented ischemia, FFR of the stenosis was measured. If FFR was >0.75, patients were randomly assigned to deferral (deferral group; n=91) or performance (performance group; n=90) of PTCA. If FFR was <0.75, PTCA was performed as planned (reference group; n=144). Clinical follow-up was obtained at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Event-free survival was similar between the deferral and performance groups (92% versus 89% at 12 months and 89% versus 83% at 24 months) but was significantly lower in the reference group (80% at 12 months and 78% at 24 months). In addition, the percentage of patients free from angina was similar between the deferral and performance groups (49% versus 50% at 12 months and 70% versus 51% at 24 months) but was significantly higher in the reference group (67% at 12 and 80% at 24 months).

          Conclusions —In patients with a coronary stenosis without evidence of ischemia, coronary pressure–derived FFR identifies those who will benefit from PTCA.

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          Measurement of fractional flow reserve to assess the functional severity of coronary-artery stenoses.

          The clinical significance of coronary-artery stenoses of moderate severity can be difficult to determine. Myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a new index of the functional severity of coronary stenoses that is calculated from pressure measurements made during coronary arteriography. We compared this index with the results of noninvasive tests commonly used to detect myocardial ischemia, to determine the usefulness of the index. In 45 consecutive patients with moderate coronary stenosis and chest pain of uncertain origin, we performed bicycle exercise testing, thallium scintigraphy, stress echocardiography with dobutamine, and quantitative coronary arteriography and compared the results with measurements of FFR. In all 21 patients with an FFR of less than 0.75, reversible myocardial ischemia was demonstrated unequivocally on at least one noninvasive test. After coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery was performed, all the positive test results reverted to normal. In contrast, 21 of the 24 patients with an FFR of 0.75 or higher tested negative for reversible myocardial ischemia on all the noninvasive tests. No revascularization procedures were performed in these patients, and none were required during 14 months of follow-up. The sensitivity of FFR in the identification of reversible ischemia was 88 percent, the specificity 100 percent, the positive predictive value 100 percent, the negative predictive value 88 percent, and the accuracy 93 percent. In patients with coronary stenosis of moderate severity, FFR appears to be a useful index of the functional severity of the stenoses and the need for coronary revascularization.
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            A randomized comparison of coronary-stent placement and balloon angioplasty in the treatment of coronary artery disease. Stent Restenosis Study Investigators.

            Coronary-stent placement is a new technique in which a balloon-expandable, stainless-steel, slotted tube is implanted at the site of a coronary stenosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of stent placement and standard balloon angioplasty on angiographically detected restenosis and clinical outcomes. We randomly assigned 410 patients with symptomatic coronary disease to elective placement of a Palmaz-Schatz stent or to standard balloon angioplasty. Coronary angiography was performed at base line, immediately after the procedure, and six months later. The patients who underwent stenting had a higher rate of procedural success than those who underwent standard balloon angioplasty (96.1 percent vs. 89.6 percent, P = 0.011), a larger immediate increase in the diameter of the lumen (1.72 +/- 0.46 vs. 1.23 +/- 0.48 mm, P < 0.001), and a larger luminal diameter immediately after the procedure (2.49 +/- 0.43 vs. 1.99 +/- 0.47 mm, P < 0.001). At six months, the patients with stented lesions continued to have a larger luminal diameter (1.74 +/- 0.60 vs. 1.56 +/- 0.65 mm, P = 0.007) and a lower rate of restenosis (31.6 percent vs. 42.1 percent, P = 0.046) than those treated with balloon angioplasty. There were no coronary events (death; myocardial infarction; coronary-artery bypass surgery; vessel closure, including stent thrombosis; or repeated angioplasty) in 80.5 percent of the patients in the stent group and 76.2 percent of those in the angioplasty group (P = 0.16). Revascularization of the original target lesion because of recurrent myocardial ischemia was performed less frequently in the stent group than in the angioplasty group (10.2 percent vs. 15.4 percent, P = 0.06). In selected patients, placement of an intracoronary stent, as compared with balloon angioplasty, results in an improved rate of procedural success, a lower rate of angiographically detected restenosis, a similar rate of clinical events after six months, and a less frequent need for revascularization of the original coronary lesion.
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              Aggressive lipid-lowering therapy compared with angioplasty in stable coronary artery disease. Atorvastatin versus Revascularization Treatment Investigators.

              Percutaneous coronary revascularization is widely used in improving symptoms and exercise performance in patients with ischemic heart disease and stable angina pectoris. In this study, we compared percutaneous coronary revascularization with lipid-lowering treatment for reducing the incidence of ischemic events. We studied 341 patients with stable coronary artery disease, relatively normal left ventricular function, asymptomatic or mild-to-moderate angina, and a serum level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol of at least 115 mg per deciliter (3.0 mmol per liter) who were referred for percutaneous revascularization. We randomly assigned the patients either to receive medical treatment with atorvastatin, at 80 mg per day (164 patients), or to undergo the recommended percutaneous revascularization procedure (angioplasty) followed by usual care, which could include lipid-lowering treatment (177 patients). The follow-up period was 18 months. Twenty-two (13 percent) of the patients who received aggressive lipid-lowering treatment with atorvastatin (resulting in a 46 percent reduction in the mean serum LDL cholesterol level, to 77 mg per deciliter [2.0 mmol per liter]) had ischemic events, as compared with 37 (21 percent) of the patients who underwent angioplasty (who had an 18 percent reduction in the mean serum LDL cholesterol level, to 119 mg per deciliter [3.0 mmol per liter]). The incidence of ischemic events was thus 36 percent lower in the atorvastatin group over an 18-month period (P=0.048, which was not statistically significant after adjustment for interim analyses). This reduction in events was due to a smaller number of angioplasty procedures, coronary-artery bypass operations, and hospitalizations for worsening angina. As compared with the patients who were treated with angioplasty and usual care, the patients who received atorvastatin had a significantly longer time to the first ischemic event (P=0.03). In low-risk patients with stable coronary artery disease, aggressive lipid-lowering therapy is at least as effective as angioplasty and usual care in reducing the incidence of ischemic events.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation
                Circulation
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0009-7322
                1524-4539
                June 19 2001
                June 19 2001
                : 103
                : 24
                : 2928-2934
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven, the Netherlands (G.J.W.B., N.H.J.P., E.B., J.J.K.); Cardiovascular Center, Aalst, Belgium (B.D.B, J.B., W.W.); Academic Hospital, Maastricht, the Netherlands (E.D.d.M.); Isala Clinics, Zwolle, the Netherlands (J.C.A.H.); Academic Hospital, Utrecht, the Netherlands (P.R.S.); and Hospital Universitario San Carlos, Madrid, Spain (J.E.).
                Article
                10.1161/01.CIR.103.24.2928
                11413082
                fb0a5e09-a7c2-4acf-b7be-50af8a423bdb
                © 2001

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