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      Different Expression Characteristics of LAG3 and PD-1 in Sepsis and Their Synergistic Effect on T Cell Exhaustion: A New Strategy for Immune Checkpoint Blockade

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          The impairment of immunity characterized by T cell exhaustion is the main cause of death in patients with sepsis after the acute phase. Although PD-1 blockade is highly touted as a promising treatment for improving prognosis, the role of PD-1 plays in sepsis and particularly its different roles in different periods are still very limited. A recent study revealed LAG3 can resist the therapeutic effect of PD-1 blockade in tumor, which inspired us to understand their role in sepsis. We enrolled 26 patients with acute sepsis from 422 candidates using strict inclusion criteria. Follow-up analysis revealed that the expression levels of PD-1 were rapidly increased in the early stage of sepsis but did not change significantly as infection continued ( P < 0.05). However, the expression of LAG3 was contrary to that of PD-1. Compared with LAG3 or PD-1 single-positive T cells, T cells coexpressing LAG3 and PD-1 were significantly exhausted ( P < 0.05). The proportion of coexpressing T cells was negatively correlated with the total number of lymphocytes ( r = −0.653, P = 0.0003) and positively correlated with the SOFA score ( r = 0.712, P < 0.0001). In addition, the higher the proportion of coexpressing T cells was, the longer the hospital stay and the higher the mortality. These results showed that LAG3 and PD-1 had a potential synergistic effect in regulating the gradual exhaustion of T cells in sepsis, which seriously affected the clinical prognosis of patients. Therefore, LAG3 and PD-1 double-positive T cells are an important indicator for immunity detection and prognostic evaluation. In the future, precision therapy may pay more attention to the different expression patterns of these two molecules.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Rapid increase in hospitalization and mortality rates for severe sepsis in the United States: a trend analysis from 1993 to 2003.

          To determine recent trends in rates of hospitalization, mortality, and hospital case fatality for severe sepsis in the United States. Trend analysis for the period from 1993 to 2003. U.S. community hospitals from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample that is a 20% stratified sample of all U.S. community hospitals. Subjects of any age with sepsis including severe sepsis who were hospitalized in the United States during the study period. None. Utilizing International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for septicemia and major organ dysfunction, we identified 8,403,766 patients with sepsis, including 2,857,476 patients with severe sepsis, who were hospitalized in the United States from 1993 to 2003. The percentage of severe sepsis cases among all sepsis cases increased continuously from 25.6% in 1993 to 43.8% in 2003 (p < .001). Age-adjusted rate of hospitalization for severe sepsis grew from 66.8 +/- 0.16 to 132.0 +/- 0.21 per 100,000 population (p < .001). Age-adjusted, population-based mortality rate within these years increased from 30.3 +/- 0.11 to 49.7 +/- 0.13 per 100,000 population (p < .001), whereas hospital case fatality rate fell from 45.8% +/- 0.17% to 37.8% +/- 0.10% (p < .001). During each study year, the rates of hospitalization, mortality, and case fatality increased with age. Hospitalization and mortality rates in males exceeded those in females, but case fatality rate was greater in females. From 1993 to 2003, age-adjusted rates for severe sepsis hospitalization and mortality increased annually by 8.2% (p < .001) and 5.6% (p < .001), respectively, whereas case fatality rate decreased by 1.4% (p < .001). The rate of severe sepsis hospitalization almost doubled during the 11-yr period studied and is considerably greater than has been previously predicted. Mortality from severe sepsis also increased significantly. However, case fatality rates decreased during the same study period.
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            Delayed administration of anti-PD-1 antibody reverses immune dysfunction and improves survival during sepsis.

            There is increasing recognition that a major pathophysiologic event in sepsis is the progression to an immunosuppressive state in which the host is unable to eradicate invading pathogens. Although there are likely numerous causes for the immunosuppression, expression of negative costimulatory molecules on immune effector cells is a likely contributing factor. PD-1 is a recently described, negative costimulatory molecule that has potent effects to inhibit T cell activation, cytokine production, and cytotoxic functions. PD-1 plays a critical role in the host response to specific pathogens, but relatively little work has been done on the possible effects of PD-1 in sepsis. We hypothesized that the anti-PD-1 antibody would improve survival in sepsis. Mice underwent CLP, and PD-1 expression was quantitated. Additionally, the effects of anti-PD-1 antibody on lymphocyte apoptosis, cytokine production, host immunity, and survival were determined. PD-1 expression increased beginning 48 h after sepsis, and >20% of CD4 and CD8 T cells were positive by 7 days. Anti-PD-1 antibody administered 24 h after sepsis prevented sepsis-induced depletion of lymphocytes and DCs, increased Bcl-xL, blocked apoptosis, and improved survival. Anti-PD-1 also prevented the loss in DTH, a key indicator of immunocompetence in sepsis. Thus, delayed administration of anti-PD-1 antibody, an important therapeutic advantage, was effective in sepsis. Furthermore, these results add to the growing body of evidence that modulation of the positive and negative costimulatory pathways on immune cells represents a viable therapeutic approach in reversing immunosuppression and improving sepsis survival.
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              Macroscopic postmortem findings in 235 surgical intensive care patients with sepsis.

              Although detailed analyses of the postmortem findings of various critically ill patient groups have been published, no such study has been performed in patients with sepsis. In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed macroscopic postmortem examinations of surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients who died from sepsis or septic shock. Between 1997 and 2006, the ICU database and autopsy register were reviewed for patients who were admitted to the ICU because of sepsis/septic shock, or who developed sepsis/septic shock at a later stage during their ICU stay and subsequently died from of sepsis/septic shock. Clinical data and postmortem findings were documented in all patients. Postmortem results of 235 patients (84.8%) were available for statistical analysis. The main causes of death as reported in the patient history were refractory multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (51.5%) and uncontrollable cardiovascular failure (35.3%). Pathologies were detected in the lungs (89.8%), kidneys/urinary tract (60%), gastrointestinal tract (54%), cardiovascular system (53.6%), liver (47.7%), spleen (33.2%), central nervous system (18.7%), and pancreas (8.5%). In 180 patients (76.6%), the autopsy revealed a continuous septic focus. The most common continuous foci were pneumonia (41.3%), tracheobronchitis (28.9%), peritonitis (23.4%), uterine/ovarial necrosis (9.8% of female patients), intraabdominal abscesses (9.1%), and pyelonephritis (6%). A continuous septic focus was observed in 63 of the 71 patients (88.7%) who were admitted to the ICU because of sepsis/septic shock and treated for longer than 7 days. Relevant postmortem findings explaining death in surgical ICU patients who died because of sepsis/septic shock were a continuous septic focus in approximately 80% and cardiac pathologies in 50%. The most frequently affected organs were the lungs, abdomen, and urogenital tract. More diagnostic, therapeutic and scientific efforts should be launched to identify and control the infectious focus in patients with sepsis and septic shock.

                Author and article information

                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                07 August 2019
                : 10
                1Department of Emergency, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University , Chongqing, China
                2Department of Intensive Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University , Chongqing, China
                3Chongqing Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology and Epigenetics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University , Chongqing, China
                4Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University , Chongqing, China
                5Department of Endocrine and Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University , Chongqing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Alejandra Pera, Universidad de Córdoba, Spain

                Reviewed by: Esaki M. Shankar, Central University of Tamil Nadu, India; Craig Coopersmith, Emory University, United States

                *Correspondence: Huimin Du 1020677872@

                This article was submitted to Immunological Memory, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Copyright © 2019 Niu, Zhou, Su, Wang, Xu, Yi, Wu, Du and Ren.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 53, Pages: 14, Words: 8436
                Original Research


                t cell exhaustion, sepsis, pd-1, lag3, synergistic inhibition


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