The aim was to develop an instrument to measure and to explore the perception of potential outcomes of prosthodontic treatment in partial and fully edentulous patients, including benefits, risks and consequences of non replacement of missing teeth. It was also aimed to assess the influence of clinical and socio-demographic variables on the perception of potential outcomes. Using a two-phase data collection (open-ended and closed-form), a scale was developed containing 41 statements to measure subject's perception scores in a 5-point Likert-type scale (1, strongly disagree; 2, disagree; 3, neutral; 4, agree; 5, strongly agree). In the second phase 126 partially or fully edentulous subjects were interviewed. Influence of age, gender and clinical variables on perceived outcomes were tested using one-way anova, independent t-test and two-way anova (general linear model). Respondents' mean age was 51.8 years (s.d.=12.3), and 74% were female. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the scale and subscales ranged from 0.70 to 0.90. Patients' mean scores ranged from 2.37 to 4.88 (mean=4.25; s.d.=0.65), indicating that subjects tended to agree with the proposed affirmatives (scores 4 and 5). Perception scores were influenced by age, gender, edentulous spaces and use of prosthodontics. Older subjects, female, those with higher number of missing teeth and who have been previously treated had greater perception of benefits and risks of prosthodontic treatment. It was concluded that the proposed instrument was suitable for measuring subjects' perception of potential outcomes of prosthodontic treatment.