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      Glucocorticoid receptor signalling activates YAP in breast cancer

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          Abstract

          The Hippo pathway is an oncosuppressor signalling cascade that plays a major role in the control of cell growth, tissue homoeostasis and organ size. Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway leads to aberrant activation of the transcription co-activator YAP (Yes-associated protein) that contributes to tumorigenesis in several tissues. Here we identify glucocorticoids (GCs) as hormonal activators of YAP. Stimulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) leads to increase of YAP protein levels, nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we find that GCs increase expression and deposition of fibronectin leading to the focal adhesion-Src pathway stimulation, cytoskeleton-dependent YAP activation and expansion of chemoresistant cancer stem cells. GR activation correlates with YAP activity in human breast cancer and predicts bad prognosis in the basal-like subtype. Our results unveil a novel mechanism of YAP activation in cancer and open the possibility to target GR to prevent cancer stem cells self-renewal and chemoresistance.

          Abstract

          Activation of YAP contributes to tumorigenesis in several tissues. Here, the authors show that in breast cancer cells glucocorticoids induce expression of fibronectin that in turn activates focal adhesion kinase/Src signalling to promote YAP nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity.

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          Most cited references 64

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          Exploration, normalization, and summaries of high density oligonucleotide array probe level data.

          In this paper we report exploratory analyses of high-density oligonucleotide array data from the Affymetrix GeneChip system with the objective of improving upon currently used measures of gene expression. Our analyses make use of three data sets: a small experimental study consisting of five MGU74A mouse GeneChip arrays, part of the data from an extensive spike-in study conducted by Gene Logic and Wyeth's Genetics Institute involving 95 HG-U95A human GeneChip arrays; and part of a dilution study conducted by Gene Logic involving 75 HG-U95A GeneChip arrays. We display some familiar features of the perfect match and mismatch probe (PM and MM) values of these data, and examine the variance-mean relationship with probe-level data from probes believed to be defective, and so delivering noise only. We explain why we need to normalize the arrays to one another using probe level intensities. We then examine the behavior of the PM and MM using spike-in data and assess three commonly used summary measures: Affymetrix's (i) average difference (AvDiff) and (ii) MAS 5.0 signal, and (iii) the Li and Wong multiplicative model-based expression index (MBEI). The exploratory data analyses of the probe level data motivate a new summary measure that is a robust multi-array average (RMA) of background-adjusted, normalized, and log-transformed PM values. We evaluate the four expression summary measures using the dilution study data, assessing their behavior in terms of bias, variance and (for MBEI and RMA) model fit. Finally, we evaluate the algorithms in terms of their ability to detect known levels of differential expression using the spike-in data. We conclude that there is no obvious downside to using RMA and attaching a standard error (SE) to this quantity using a linear model which removes probe-specific affinities.
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            Significance analysis of microarrays applied to the ionizing radiation response.

            Microarrays can measure the expression of thousands of genes to identify changes in expression between different biological states. Methods are needed to determine the significance of these changes while accounting for the enormous number of genes. We describe a method, Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM), that assigns a score to each gene on the basis of change in gene expression relative to the standard deviation of repeated measurements. For genes with scores greater than an adjustable threshold, SAM uses permutations of the repeated measurements to estimate the percentage of genes identified by chance, the false discovery rate (FDR). When the transcriptional response of human cells to ionizing radiation was measured by microarrays, SAM identified 34 genes that changed at least 1.5-fold with an estimated FDR of 12%, compared with FDRs of 60 and 84% by using conventional methods of analysis. Of the 34 genes, 19 were involved in cell cycle regulation and 3 in apoptosis. Surprisingly, four nucleotide excision repair genes were induced, suggesting that this repair pathway for UV-damaged DNA might play a previously unrecognized role in repairing DNA damaged by ionizing radiation.
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              Supervised risk predictor of breast cancer based on intrinsic subtypes.

              PURPOSE To improve on current standards for breast cancer prognosis and prediction of chemotherapy benefit by developing a risk model that incorporates the gene expression-based "intrinsic" subtypes luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, and basal-like. METHODS A 50-gene subtype predictor was developed using microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction data from 189 prototype samples. Test sets from 761 patients (no systemic therapy) were evaluated for prognosis, and 133 patients were evaluated for prediction of pathologic complete response (pCR) to a taxane and anthracycline regimen. The intrinsic subtypes as discrete entities showed prognostic significance (P = 2.26E-12) and remained significant in multivariable analyses that incorporated standard parameters (estrogen receptor status, histologic grade, tumor size, and node status). A prognostic model for node-negative breast cancer was built using intrinsic subtype and clinical information. The C-index estimate for the combined model (subtype and tumor size) was a significant improvement on either the clinicopathologic model or subtype model alone. The intrinsic subtype model predicted neoadjuvant chemotherapy efficacy with a negative predictive value for pCR of 97%. CONCLUSION Diagnosis by intrinsic subtype adds significant prognostic and predictive information to standard parameters for patients with breast cancer. The prognostic properties of the continuous risk score will be of value for the management of node-negative breast cancers. The subtypes and risk score can also be used to assess the likelihood of efficacy from neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group
                2041-1723
                19 January 2017
                2017
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratorio Nazionale CIB (LNCIB), Area Science Park Padriciano , Trieste 34149, Italy
                [2 ]Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università degli Studi di Trieste , Trieste 34127, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova , Padova 35124, Italy
                [4 ]Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia , Modena 41125, Italy
                [5 ]Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS , Padova 35128, Italy
                [6 ]Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology (CNC), University of Coimbra , Coimbra 3060-197, Portugal
                [7 ]International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) , Trieste 34149, Italy
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                ncomms14073
                10.1038/ncomms14073
                5253666
                28102225
                Copyright © 2017, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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