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      Epidemiology characteristics of respiratory viruses found in children and adults with respiratory tract infections in southern China

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          Summary

          Background

          The World Health Organization (WHO) ranks respiratory tract infection (RTI) as the second leading cause of death worldwide for children under 5 years of age. The aim of this work was to evaluate the epidemiology characteristics of respiratory viruses found in children and adults with RTI from July 2009 to June 2012 in southern China.

          Methods

          In this work, a total of 14 237 nasopharyngeal swabs (14 237 patients from 25 hospitals) were analyzed, and seven respiratory viruses (influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, human coronavirus, human bocavirus) were detected using PCR/RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs.

          Results

          The demographic characteristics, viral prevalence, age distribution, seasonal distribution, and pathogen spectrum of the patients with RTIs were analyzed. Co-infection was observed in 483 specimens, but it was more common in male patients, inpatients, children, and young adults. It varied by season, being more prevalent in the spring and summer and less so in the winter. Human coronavirus and human bocavirus were the most common pathogens, tending to occur in co-infection with other respiratory viruses.

          Conclusions

          This work adds to our knowledge of the epidemiology characteristics of these seven common respiratory viruses among patients with RTI in southern China. The detection of the specific viral causes of infection provides a useful starting point for an understanding of illness attributable to respiratory infection, and might also provide data relevant to the development of prevention strategies.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Characterization of a novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome.

           P Rota (2003)
          In March 2003, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was discovered in association with cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The sequence of the complete genome of SARS-CoV was determined, and the initial characterization of the viral genome is presented in this report. The genome of SARS-CoV is 29,727 nucleotides in length and has 11 open reading frames, and its genome organization is similar to that of other coronaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses and sequence comparisons showed that SARS-CoV is not closely related to any of the previously characterized coronaviruses.
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            Characterization and complete genome sequence of a novel coronavirus, coronavirus HKU1, from patients with pneumonia.

            Despite extensive laboratory investigations in patients with respiratory tract infections, no microbiological cause can be identified in a significant proportion of patients. In the past 3 years, several novel respiratory viruses, including human metapneumovirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and human coronavirus NL63, were discovered. Here we report the discovery of another novel coronavirus, coronavirus HKU1 (CoV-HKU1), from a 71-year-old man with pneumonia who had just returned from Shenzhen, China. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that the amount of CoV-HKU1 RNA was 8.5 to 9.6 x 10(6) copies per ml in his nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) during the first week of the illness and dropped progressively to undetectable levels in subsequent weeks. He developed increasing serum levels of specific antibodies against the recombinant nucleocapsid protein of CoV-HKU1, with immunoglobulin M (IgM) titers of 1:20, 1:40, and 1:80 and IgG titers of <1:1,000, 1:2,000, and 1:8,000 in the first, second and fourth weeks of the illness, respectively. Isolation of the virus by using various cell lines, mixed neuron-glia culture, and intracerebral inoculation of suckling mice was unsuccessful. The complete genome sequence of CoV-HKU1 is a 29,926-nucleotide, polyadenylated RNA, with G+C content of 32%, the lowest among all known coronaviruses with available genome sequence. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that CoV-HKU1 is a new group 2 coronavirus. Screening of 400 NPAs, negative for SARS-CoV, from patients with respiratory illness during the SARS period identified the presence of CoV-HKU1 RNA in an additional specimen, with a viral load of 1.13 x 10(6) copies per ml, from a 35-year-old woman with pneumonia. Our data support the existence of a novel group 2 coronavirus associated with pneumonia in humans.
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              Cloning of a human parvovirus by molecular screening of respiratory tract samples.

              The identification of new virus species is a key issue for the study of infectious disease but is technically very difficult. We developed a system for large-scale molecular virus screening of clinical samples based on host DNA depletion, random PCR amplification, large-scale sequencing, and bioinformatics. The technology was applied to pooled human respiratory tract samples. The first experiments detected seven human virus species without the use of any specific reagent. Among the detected viruses were one coronavirus and one parvovirus, both of which were at that time uncharacterized. The parvovirus, provisionally named human bocavirus, was in a retrospective clinical study detected in 17 additional patients and associated with lower respiratory tract infections in children. The molecular virus screening procedure provides a general culture-independent solution to the problem of detecting unknown virus species in single or pooled samples. We suggest that a systematic exploration of the viruses that infect humans, "the human virome," can be initiated.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Int J Infect Dis
                Int. J. Infect. Dis
                International Journal of Infectious Diseases
                The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
                1201-9712
                1878-3511
                11 June 2014
                August 2014
                11 June 2014
                : 25
                : 159-164
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
                [b ]Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control, Sun Yat-sen University, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou, China
                [c ]Department of Microbiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan Road II, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China
                Author notes
                [1]

                Dingmei Zhang, Zhenjian He and Lin Xu contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                S1201-9712(14)01458-1
                10.1016/j.ijid.2014.02.019
                7110535
                24927663
                fb1ce35c-7e2f-4091-b4af-ca71aec5bdec
                © 2014 The Authors

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

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