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      Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide Mediated the Antidiabetic and Antinephritic Effects in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague Dawley Rats via Regulation of NF- κB

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          Abstract

          Lycium barbarum, extensively utilized as a medicinal plant in China for years, exhibits antitumor, immunoregulative, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective properties. The present study aims to investigate the hyperglycemic and antidiabetic nephritic effects of polysaccharide which is separated from Lycium barbarum (LBPS) in high-fat diet-streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced rat models. The reduced bodyweight and enhanced blood glucose concentration in serum were observed in diabetic rats, and they were significantly normalized to the healthy level by 100 mg/kg of metformin (Met) and LBPS at doses of 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg. LBPS inhibited albuminuria and blood urea nitrogen concentration and serum levels of inflammatory factors including IL-2, IL-6, TNF- α, IFN- α, MCP-1, and ICAM-1 compared with diabetic rats, and it indicates the protection on renal damage. Furthermore, the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in serum were enhanced strikingly by LBPS which suggests its antioxidation effects. LBPS, compared with nontreated diabetic rats, inhibited the expression of phosphor-nuclear factors kappa B (NF- κB) and inhibitor kappa B alpha in kidney tissues. Collectively, LBPS possesses antidiabetic and antinephritic effects related to NF- κB-mediated antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities.

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          Free radicals, antioxidant defense systems, and schizophrenia.

          The etiopathogenic mechanisms of schizophrenia are to date unknown, although several hypotheses have been suggested. Accumulating evidence suggests that excessive free radical production or oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia as evidenced by increased production of reactive oxygen or decreased antioxidant protection in schizophrenic patients. This review aims to summarize the basic molecular mechanisms of free radical metabolism, the impaired antioxidant defense system and membrane pathology in schizophrenia, their interrelationships with the characteristic clinical symptoms and the implications for antipsychotic treatments. In schizophrenia, there is accumulating evidence of altered antioxidant enzyme activities and increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as altered levels of plasma antioxidants. Moreover, free radical-mediated abnormalities may contribute to specific aspects of schizophrenic symptomatology and complications of its treatment with antipsychotic drugs, as well as the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Finally, the potential therapeutic strategies implicated by the accumulating data on oxidative stress mechanisms for the treatment of schizophrenia are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Effect of lowering uric acid on renal disease in the type 2 diabetic db/db mice.

            Hyperuricemia has recently been recognized to be a risk factor for nephropathy in the diabetic subject. We tested the hypothesis that lowering uric acid with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor might reduce renal injury in the diabetic mouse. Diabetic (db/db) mice were treated with allopurinol or no treatment for 8 wk. Serum uric acid, renal function, and histology were assessed at death. The direct effect of uric acid in human proximal tubular epithelial cells was also evaluated under normal or high glucose condition. We found that db/db mice developed hyperuricemia, albuminuria, mesangial matrix expansion, and mild tubulointerstitial disease. Allopurinol treatment significantly lowered uric acid levels, reduced albuminuria, and ameliorated tubulointerstitial injury, but it did not prevent mesangial expansion. The mechanism for protection was shown to be due to a reduction in inflammatory cells mediated by a reduction in ICAM-1 expression by tubular epithelial cells. Interestingly, allopurinol did not reduce oxidative stress in the kidney. An inflammatory role of uric acid on tubular cells was also confirmed by our in vitro evidence that uric acid directly induced ICAM-1 expression in the human proximal tubular cell. In conclusion, hyperuricemia has a pathogenic role in the mild tubulointerstitial injury associated with diabetic nephropathy but not glomerular damage in db/db mice. Lowering uric acid may reduce tubulointerstitial injury in diabetes.
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              Pathogenesis of Target Organ Damage in Hypertension: Role of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress

              Hypertension causes target organ damage (TOD) that involves vasculature, heart, brain and kidneys. Complex biochemical, hormonal and hemodynamic mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of TOD. Common to all these processes is an increased bioavailability of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both in vitro and in vivo studies explored the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress as a mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of TOD in hypertension, especially focusing on atherosclerosis, heart disease, renal failure, cerebrovascular disease. Both dysfunction of mitochondrial proteins, such as uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), superoxide dismutase (SOD) 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α), calcium channels, and the interaction between mitochondria and other sources of ROS, such as NADPH oxidase, play an important role in the development of endothelial dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy, renal and cerebral damage in hypertension. Commonly used anti-hypertensive drugs have shown protective effects against mitochondrial-dependent oxidative stress. Notably, few mitochondrial proteins can be considered therapeutic targets on their own. In fact, antioxidant therapies specifically targeted at mitochondria represent promising strategies to reduce mitochondrial dysfunction and related hypertensive TOD. In the present article, we discuss the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress as a contributing factor to hypertensive TOD development. We also provide an overview of mitochondria-based treatment strategies that may reveal useful to prevent TOD and reduce its progression.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2016
                21 April 2016
                : 2016
                Affiliations
                1Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212001, China
                2Faculty of Medicine, Changchun Medical College, Changchun 130013, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Andrea Vecchione

                Article
                10.1155/2016/3140290
                4856889
                27200371
                Copyright © 2016 Mingzhao Du et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

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