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      Short and Long-Term Outcome of Stress-Induced Cardiomyopathy: What Can We Expect?

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          Stress-induced/Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is an increasingly recognized diagnostic entity.


          This study was aimed to assess the prevalence and clinical predictors of short and long-term outcome of patients (pts) diagnosed with TC.


          We included all consecutive pts admitted in our department, from November 2006 to August 2011, who met the Mayo Clinic criteria for TC diagnosis.


          We evaluated 37 pts (35 women) with a mean age of 63 ±13 years. TC was precipitated by a stressful emotional event in the majority (57%) and chest pain was the most common symptom (89%). Twelve pts (32%) had ST-segment elevation and 15 pts (41%) had T-wave inversion on the electrocardiogram at admission. Severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was found in 16 pts (43%) and the mean troponin I level was 2.6±1.8 ng/mL. The in-hospital complication rate was 30%, with cardiogenic shock being the most common situation. Physical stress, severe LV systolic dysfunction and peak brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were predictors of acute complications. On the other hand, we found no association between peak troponin I and electrocardiographic presentation. Thirty-five pts were followed for a mean time of 482 ± 512 days, without clinic recurrence.


          In our cohort of pts, TC was associated with a high in-hospital complications rate. Physical stress, LV dysfunction and peak BNP could predict acute adverse outcomes.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Natural history and expansive clinical profile of stress (tako-tsubo) cardiomyopathy.

          This study was designed to define more completely the clinical spectrum and consequences of stress cardiomyopathy (SC) beyond the acute event. Stress cardiomyopathy is a recently recognized condition characterized by transient cardiac dysfunction with ventricular ballooning. Clinical profile and outcome were prospectively assessed in 136 consecutive SC patients. Patients were predominantly women (n = 130; 96%), but 6 were men (4%). Ages were 32 to 94 years (mean age 68 +/- 13 years); 13 (10%) were 2 months in 5%. Right and/or left ventricular thrombi were identified in 5 patients (predominantly by CMR imaging), including 2 with embolic events. Three patients (2%) died in-hospital and 116 (85%) have survived, including 5% with nonfatal recurrent SC events. All-cause mortality during follow-up exceeded a matched general population (p = 0.016) with most deaths occurring in the first year. In this large SC cohort, the clinical spectrum was heterogeneous with about one-third either male,
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            Four-year recurrence rate and prognosis of the apical ballooning syndrome.

            This study sought to assess the long-term prognosis of patients with apical ballooning syndrome (ABS). Apical ballooning syndrome is a recently described acute cardiac syndrome of uncertain etiology and prognosis. We retrospectively identified 100 unselected patients with a confirmed diagnosis of ABS by angiography. Recurrences of ABS and mortality were recorded. Over a mean follow-up of 4.4 +/- 4.6 years, 31 patients continued to have episodes of chest pain and 10 patients had recurrence of ABS, for a recurrence rate of 11.4% over the first 4 years. Seventeen patients died in 4.7 +/- 4.8 years of follow-up. There was no difference in survival or in cardiovascular survival to an age- and gender-matched population. The recurrence rate for ABS was 11.4% over 4 years after initial presentation. Recurrence of chest pain is common. Four-year survival was not different from that in an age-matched and gender-matched population.
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              Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome: A systematic review.

              Transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome (TLVABS) is an acute cardiac syndrome mimicking ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction characterized by transient wall-motion abnormalities involving apical and mid-portions of the left ventricle in the absence of significant obstructive coronary disease. Searching the MEDLINE database 28 case series met the eligibility criteria and were summarized in a narrative synthesis of the demographic characteristics, clinical features and pathophysiological mechanisms. TLVABS is observed in 0.7-2.5% of patients with suspected ACS, affects women in 90.7% (95% CI: 88.2-93.2%) with a mean age ranging from 62 to 76 years and most commonly presents with chest pain (83.4%, 95% CI: 80.0-86.7%) and dyspnea (20.4%, 95% CI: 16.3-24.5%) following an emotionally or physically stressful event. ECG on admission shows ST-segment elevations in 71.1% (95% CI: 67.2-75.1%) and is accompanied by usually mild elevations of Troponins in 85.0% (95% CI: 80.8-89.1%). Despite dramatic clinical presentation and substantial risk of heart failure, cardiogenic shock and arrhythmias, LVEF improved from 20-49.9% to 59-76% within a mean time of 7-37 days with an in-hospital mortality rate of 1.7% (95% CI: 0.5-2.8%), complete recovery in 95.9% (95% CI: 93.8-98.1%) and rare recurrence. The underlying etiology is thought to be based on an exaggerated sympathetic stimulation. TLVABS is a considerable differential diagnosis in ACS, especially in postmenopausal women with a preceding stressful event. Data on longterm follow-up is pending and further studies will be necessary to clarify the etiology and reach consensus in acute and longterm management of TLVABS.

                Author and article information

                Arq Bras Cardiol
                Arq. Bras. Cardiol
                Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
                Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia
                Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia
                January 2014
                : 102
                : 1
                : 80-85
                [1 ] Centro Hospitalar São João, Porto - Portugal
                [2 ] Hospital Pedro Hispano, Porto - Portugal
                Author notes
                Mailing Address: Vânia Filipa Andrade Ribeiro, Alameda Prof. Hêrnani Monteiro. Postal Code 4200-319, Porto - Portugal. E-mail: ribeiro_vania@

                Potential Conflict of Interest

                No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.


                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Articles

                takotsubo cardiomyopathy, stress, psychological


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