Lung adenocarcinoma is a multifactorial disease. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles are extensively used for discovering potential theranostic biomarkers of lung cancer. This work proposes an optimized support vector regression (SVR) method called SVR-LUAD to simultaneously identify a set of miRNAs referred to the miRNA signature for estimating the survival time of lung adenocarcinoma patients using their miRNA expression profiles. SVR-LUAD uses an inheritable bi-objective combinatorial genetic algorithm to identify a small set of informative miRNAs cooperating with SVR by maximizing estimation accuracy. SVR-LUAD identified 18 out of 332 miRNAs using 10-fold cross-validation and achieved a correlation coefficient of 0.88 ± 0.01 and mean absolute error of 0.56 ± 0.03 year between real and estimated survival time. SVR-LUAD performs well compared to some well-recognized regression methods. The miRNA signature consists of the 18 miRNAs which strongly correlates with lung adenocarcinoma: hsa-let-7f-1, hsa-miR-16-1, hsa-miR-152, hsa-miR-217, hsa-miR-18a, hsa-miR-193b, hsa-miR-3136, hsa-let-7g, hsa-miR-155, hsa-miR-3199-1, hsa-miR-219-2, hsa-miR-1254, hsa-miR-1291, hsa-miR-192, hsa-miR-3653, hsa-miR-3934, hsa-miR-342, and hsa-miR-141. Gene ontology annotation and pathway analysis of the miRNA signature revealed its biological significance in cancer and cellular pathways. This miRNA signature could aid in the development of novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma.