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      Warning about conservation status of forest ecosystems in tropical Andes: National assessment based on IUCN criteria

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          Abstract

          World ecosystems are suffering from anthropogenic and natural pressure. The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) has developed analogous criteria for the Red List of Threatened Species in order to perform similar risk assessments on ecosystems, creating the Red List of Ecosystems (RLE) methodology. One of the most significant challenges for the construction of these lists is gathering the available information to apply the criteria. By applying IUCN RLE criteria B (the extent of restricted geographic distribution of an ecosystem), we analyzed the threat level of 64 forest ecosystems of the Ecuadorian mainland. According to the results, limited distribution is the key risk to threatened ecosystems, which are associated with anthropogenic pressures. Our study showed that 22% of forest ecosystems are classified as threatened. This evaluation of the forest ecosystem status at a national level could lead to public awareness towards ecosystem conservation and provide reasonable strategies to managers.

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          Most cited references41

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          Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100.

          Scenarios of changes in biodiversity for the year 2100 can now be developed based on scenarios of changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate, vegetation, and land use and the known sensitivity of biodiversity to these changes. This study identified a ranking of the importance of drivers of change, a ranking of the biomes with respect to expected changes, and the major sources of uncertainties. For terrestrial ecosystems, land-use change probably will have the largest effect, followed by climate change, nitrogen deposition, biotic exchange, and elevated carbon dioxide concentration. For freshwater ecosystems, biotic exchange is much more important. Mediterranean climate and grassland ecosystems likely will experience the greatest proportional change in biodiversity because of the substantial influence of all drivers of biodiversity change. Northern temperate ecosystems are estimated to experience the least biodiversity change because major land-use change has already occurred. Plausible changes in biodiversity in other biomes depend on interactions among the causes of biodiversity change. These interactions represent one of the largest uncertainties in projections of future biodiversity change.
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            Proximate Causes and Underlying Driving Forces of Tropical Deforestation

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              The Global 200: Priority Ecoregions for Global Conservation

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                25 August 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 8
                : e0237877
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Laboratorio de Cambio Global, Universidad Regional Amazónica Ikiam, Tena, Ecuador
                [2 ] Department Sustainable Landscape Development, Institute for Geosciences and Geography, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg Halle, Halle, Germany
                [3 ] Laboratorio de Ecología de Paisaje, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
                [4 ] Grupo de Investigación Ecosistemas Tropicales y Cambio Global, Universidad Regional Amazónica Ikiam, Tena, Ecuador
                Imperial College London, UNITED KINGDOM
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-20-10157
                10.1371/journal.pone.0237877
                7447026
                32841244
                fb2a84cd-48f3-479f-b19b-34ce98468ba4
                © 2020 Noh et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 8 April 2020
                : 4 August 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 4, Pages: 19
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002848, Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica;
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Korea International Cooperation Agency
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD)
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD)
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD)
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100011099, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit;
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100011099, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit;
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100011099, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit;
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100011099, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit;
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100011099, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit;
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD)
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD)
                Award Recipient :
                The authors of this publication has research support from German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) from funds of the German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ) GmbH on behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). The authors have declared there are no financial conflicts of interest to disclose.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecosystems
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecosystems
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Forest Ecology
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Forest Ecology
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecosystems
                Forests
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecosystems
                Forests
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Terrestrial Environments
                Forests
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Conservation Science
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Community Ecology
                Ecological Risk
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Community Ecology
                Ecological Risk
                Earth Sciences
                Geography
                Human Geography
                Land Use
                Social Sciences
                Human Geography
                Land Use
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Biodiversity
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Biodiversity
                People and places
                Geographical locations
                South America
                Ecuador
                Custom metadata
                The data underlying the results presented in the study are available from http://suia.ambiente.gob.ec.

                Uncategorized
                Uncategorized

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