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      Effect of acupressure on constipation in patients undergoing hemodialysis: A randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial

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          Constipation is one of the most common digestive problems in patients undergoing hemodialysis. It has a negative effect on quality of life in these patients. As routine treatments are not effective in this regard, complementary therapies may help to overcome this condition. This study aimed to investigate the effect of acupressure on constipation in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

          Materials and Methods:

          This was a randomized double- blind placebo- controlled clinical trial conducted in 2014. A convenience sample of 70 patients undergoing hemodialysis was selected from hemodialysis units of three hospitals affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Mazandaran, Iran. Patients were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Intervention group received acupressure in acupressure points three times a week for four weeks during hemodialysis. In control group, acupressure was delivered in false points. We assessed the frequency of defecation in the two groups before and after the study. The study instruments consisted of a demographic questionnaire, and a data sheet for documenting constipation frequency.


          The results indicated a significant difference between intervention group (13.73±3.63) and control group (10.06±3.77) in frequency of defecation during the fourth week of intervention (p<0.001). Regarding quality of stool, there was a meaningful difference between the groups in the fourth week in a way that the stool in the intervention group was more natural and in the control group, it was thicker and more adhesive.


          Acupressure seems to be an effective complementary treatment for constipation in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

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          Most cited references 21

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          The prevalence of symptoms in end-stage renal disease: a systematic review.

          Symptoms in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are underrecognized. Prevalence studies have focused on single symptoms rather than on the whole range of symptoms experienced. This systematic review aimed to describe prevalence of all symptoms, to better understand total symptom burden. Extensive database, "gray literature," and hand searches were undertaken, by predefined protocol, for studies reporting symptom prevalence in ESRD populations on dialysis, discontinuing dialysis, or without dialysis. Prevalence data were extracted, study quality assessed by use of established criteria, and studies contrasted/combined to show weighted mean prevalence and range. Fifty-nine studies in dialysis patients, one in patients discontinuing dialysis, and none in patients without dialysis met the inclusion criteria. For the following symptoms, weighted mean prevalence (and range) were fatigue/tiredness 71% (12% to 97%), pruritus 55% (10% to 77%), constipation 53% (8% to 57%), anorexia 49% (25% to 61%), pain 47% (8% to 82%), sleep disturbance 44% (20% to 83%), anxiety 38% (12% to 52%), dyspnea 35% (11% to 55%), nausea 33% (15% to 48%), restless legs 30% (8%to 52%), and depression 27% (5%to 58%). Prevalence variations related to differences in symptom definition, period of prevalence, and level of severity reported. ESRD patients on dialysis experience multiple symptoms, with pain, fatigue, pruritus, and constipation in more than 1 in 2 patients. In patients discontinuing dialysis, evidence is more limited, but it suggests they too have significant symptom burden. No evidence is available on symptom prevalence in ESRD patients managed conservatively (without dialysis). The need for greater recognition of and research into symptom prevalence and causes, and interventions to alleviate them, is urgent.
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            Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of hyperkalemia

            Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening condition in which serum potassium exceeds 5.5 mmol/l. It can be caused by reduced renal excretion, excessive intake or leakage of potassium from the intracellular space. In addition to acute and chronic renal failure, hypoaldosteronism, and massive tissue breakdown as in rhabdomyolysis, are typical conditions leading to hyperkalemia. Symptoms are non-specific and predominantly related to muscular or cardiac dysfunction. Treatment has to be initiated immediately using different therapeutic strategies to increase potassium shift into the intracellular space or to increase elimination, together with reduction of intake. Knowledge of the physiological mechanisms of potassium handling is essential in understanding the causes of hyperkalemia as well as its treatment. This article reviews the pathomechanisms leading to hyperkalemic states, its symptoms, and different treatment options.
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              Is Open Access

              Functional Bowel Disorders in Iranian Population using Rome III Criteria

              Background/Aim: To study the prevalence and risk factors of functional bowel disorders (FBD) in Iranian community using Rome III criteria. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional household survey conducted from May 2006 to December 2007 in Tehran province, Iran, including 18,180 participants who were selected randomly and interviewed face-to-face by a validated questionnaire based on Rome III criteria. Results: In all, 1.1% met the Rome III criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 2.4% for functional constipation (FC), and 10.9% of the participants had any type of FBD. Among participants with functional dyspepsia, 83.8% had FBD; the majority cases were unspecified functional bowel disorder (U-FBD). Of the subjects fulfilling the IBS criteria, IBS with constipation (52%) was the most frequent subtype. In the multivariate analysis, women had a higher risk of any FBDs than men, except for functional diarrhea (FD). The prevalence of FBD, FC and FD increased and IBS decreased with increasing age. Marital status was only associated with a decrease in the risk of FBD and FD, respectively. IBS subtypes compared with FC and FD. There was no significant difference between FC and IBS with constipation (IBS-C), except for self-reported constipation; while, IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D) had more symptoms than FD. Conclusion: This study revealed a low rate of FBDs among the urban population of Tehran province. The ROME III criteria itself, and the problems with interpretation of the data collection tool may have contributed in underestimating the prevalence of FBD. In addition the reliability of recall over 6 months in Rome III criteria is questionable for our population.

                Author and article information

                Avicenna J Phytomed
                Avicenna J Phytomed
                Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
                Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran )
                Jan-Feb 2019
                : 9
                : 1
                : 84-91
                [1 ] Student Research Committee, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran
                [2 ] Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center & Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran
                [3 ] Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran
                [4 ] Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding Author: Tel: +98 (51) 57223028, Fax: +98 (51) 57223814, mmojali@yahoo.com, mojalli.m@gmu.ac.ir

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Research Article

                constipation, acupressure, hemodialysis


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