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      Comparación de la eficacia y seguridad de la terapia combinada de cardiomioplastia celular con el factor estimulante de colonias de granulocitos en pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica en dos vías de implatación Translated title: Comparison of efficacy and safety of combined therapy of cellular cardiomyoplasty and granulocyte colony stimulating factor in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy in two routes of implantation


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          Este estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar la eficacia y seguridad de la terapia combinada de cardiomioplastia celular con el factor estimulante de colonias de granulocitos en pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica, y explorar posibles diferencias entre la vía de implantación. METODOLOGÍA: se hizo un estudio de «antes y después» para datos longitudinales en el que se compararon variables ecocardiográficas y número de MET alcanzados en la prueba de esfuerzo antes, dos, seis y doce meses después del procedimiento; así mismo, se evaluaron la mortalidad y los efectos adversos de la terapia. Se exploraron diferencias en los resultados de acuerdo con la vía de implantación intracoronaria vs. epicárdica. RESULTADOS: se incluyeron dieciocho pacientes, 62,3% hombres, cuya edad promedio fue 49,4 ± 11,7 años y la fracción de eyección promedio fue 31% ± 0,04. La implantación se realizó por vía intracoronaria en doce pacientes y por vía epicárdica en seis. La mediana de fracción de eyección antes de la implantación de las células fue de 30% con un rango intercuartil de 28%-35% y la media de los MET fue de 6 con un rango intercuartil de 5-7; ambas variables, al igual que los volúmenes ventriculares de fin de diástole y sístole se incrementaron de forma significativa después del procedimiento, con tendencia a un mayor incremento de la fracción de eyección en el grupo de pacientes cuya vía de implantación fue la epicárdica en comparación con la vía intracoronaria; sin embargo, el número de pacientes en cada subgrupo impidió hacer análisis definitivos. Un paciente tuvo infección de la herida quirúrgica y tres murieron dos meses después de la implantación (uno de shock séptico y dos de shock cardiogénico). CONCLUSIÓN: en nuestro medio es factible realizar terapia combinada con cardiomioplastia celular y factor estimulante de colonias de granulocito; este es un procedimiento seguro con el que se obtiene una mejoría sostenida de la fracción de eyección y los MET más allá de los beneficios que se logran con la revascularización y la terapia farmacológica óptima.

          Translated abstract

          The objective of this study is to assess efficacy and safety of combined therapy of cellular cardiomyoplasty and granulocyte colony stimulating factor in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and explore possible differences between the implantation routes. METHODOLOGY: we performed a before and after study for longitudinal data comparing echocardiographic variables and number of Met achieved in the stress test before and at two, six and twelve months after the procedure. Likewise, mortality and adverse therapy effects were evaluated. Differences in the results were analyzed according to the intracoronary vs. epicardiac route of implantation. RESULTS: eighteen patients were included; 62,3% men, with mean age 49.4 ± 11,7 years. Mean ejection fraction was 31% ± 0,04. In twelve patients implantation was performed by intracoronary route and in six by epicardiac route. Mean ejection fraction before cell implantation was 30% with an interquartil range (IQR) of 28-35%, and MET average was 6 with an interquartil rage of 5-7. Both variables as well as end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes increased significantly after the procedure, with a tendency to greater increase in ejection fraction in the group of patients whose route was epicardial implantation compared with intracoronary route; however, the number of patients in each subgroup prevented to make a definitive analysis. One patient had surgical wound infection and three died two months after implantation (one of septic shock and two of cardiogenic shock). CONCLUSION: in our environment the performance of combination therapy with cellular cardiomyoplasty and granulocyte colony stimulating factor is feasible. This is a safe procedure that achieved a sustained improvement in ejection fraction and MET beyond benefits achieved with revascularization and optimal pharmacological therapy.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Cardiac progenitor cells from adult myocardium: homing, differentiation, and fusion after infarction.

          Potential repair by cell grafting or mobilizing endogenous cells holds particular attraction in heart disease, where the meager capacity for cardiomyocyte proliferation likely contributes to the irreversibility of heart failure. Whether cardiac progenitors exist in adult myocardium itself is unanswered, as is the question whether undifferentiated cardiac precursor cells merely fuse with preexisting myocytes. Here we report the existence of adult heart-derived cardiac progenitor cells expressing stem cell antigen-1. Initially, the cells express neither cardiac structural genes nor Nkx2.5 but differentiate in vitro in response to 5'-azacytidine, in part depending on Bmpr1a, a receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins. Given intravenously after ischemia/reperfusion, cardiac stem cell antigen 1 cells home to injured myocardium. By using a Cre/Lox donor/recipient pair (alphaMHC-Cre/R26R), differentiation was shown to occur roughly equally, with and without fusion to host cells.
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            Intracoronary bone marrow cell transfer after myocardial infarction: 5-year follow-up from the randomized-controlled BOOST trial.

            We assessed whether a single intracoronary infusion of autologous bone marrow cells (BMCs) can have a sustained impact on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In the BOne marrOw transfer to enhance ST-elevation infarct regeneration (BOOST) trial, 60 patients with STEMI and successful percutaneous coronary intervention were randomized to a control and a cell therapy group. As previously reported, BMC transfer led to an improvement of LVEF by 6.0% at 6 months (P = 0.003) and 2.8% at 18 months (P = 0.27). Left ventricular ejection fraction and clinical status were re-assessed in all surviving patients after 61 +/- 11 months. Major adverse cardiac events occurred with similar frequency in both groups. When compared with baseline, LVEF assessed by magnetic resonance imaging at 61 months decreased by 3.3 +/- 9.5% in the control group and by 2.5 +/- 11.9% in the BMC group (P = 0.30). Patients with an infarct transmurality > median appeared to benefit from BMC transfer throughout the 61-month study period (P = 0.040). A single intracoronary application of BMCs does not promote a sustained improvement of LVEF in STEMI patients with relatively preserved systolic function. It is conceivable that a subgroup of patients with more transmural infarcts may derive a sustained benefit from BMC therapy. However, this needs to be tested prospectively in a randomized trial.
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              Clinical applications of stem cells for the heart.

              Repair of the heart is an old dream of physicians caring for patients with cardiac disease. Experimental studies suggest that cardiac transfer of stem and progenitor cells can have a favorable impact on tissue perfusion and contractile performance of the injured heart. Some researchers favor stable stem cell engraftment by fusion or transdifferentiation into cardiomyocyte or vascular cell lineages as likely explanations for these beneficial effects. Others have proposed that transient cell retention may be sufficient to promote functional effects, eg, by release of paracrine mediators. Although the mechanistic underpinnings of stem cell therapy are still intensely debated, the concept of cell therapy has already been introduced into the clinical setting, where a flurry of small, mostly uncontrolled trials indicate that stem cell therapy may be feasible in patients. The overall clinical experience also suggests that stem cell therapy can be safely performed, if the right cell type is used in the right clinical setting. Preliminary efficacy data indicate that stem cells have the potential to enhance myocardial perfusion and/or contractile performance in patients with acute myocardial infarction, advanced coronary artery disease, and chronic heart failure. The field now is rapidly moving toward intermediate-size, double-blinded trials to gather more safety and efficacy data. Ultimately, large outcome trials will have to be conducted. We need to proceed cautiously with carefully designed clinical trials and keep in mind that patient safety must remain the key concern. At the same time, continued basic research to elucidate the underlying mechanism of stem cell therapy is clearly needed.

                Author and article information

                Revista Colombiana de Cardiología
                Rev. Colomb. Cardiol.
                Sociedad Colombiana de Cardiologia. Oficina de Publicaciones (Bogota, Cundinamarca, Colombia )
                April 2011
                : 18
                : 2
                : 111-118
                [01] Medellín orgnameUniversidad de Antioquia orgdiv1Grupo de Terapia Celular Regenerativa Cardiovascular Colombia
                S0120-56332011000200006 S0120-5633(11)01800206

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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