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Intramural Hematoma of the Esophagus after Endoscopic Pinch Biopsy

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      Abstract

      Intramural hematoma of the esophagus (IHE) is an uncommon form of esophageal injury, which may be an intermediate of mucosal tear (Mallory-Weiss syndrome) or transmural rupture (Boerhaave's syndrome). To date, the pathogenesis of IHE has not been well documented. IHE may occur within the submucosal layer of the esophagus following dissection of the mucosa. The most commonly presented symptoms are sudden retrosternal pain, dysphagia and hematemesis. The disorder can occur spontaneously or secondarily to trauma. In this report, we present a case of IHE which occurred after endoscopic biopsy and was recovered following conservative management in a patient who was taking long-term aspirin medication.

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      Most cited references 21

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      Spontaneous intramural hematoma of the esophagus.

      Spontaneous intramural hematoma of the esophagus (SIHE) is a rare condition, usually presenting with severe acute chest pain. Vomiting, dysphagia, odynophagia, and hematemesis may appear later. We herein report a case of this disease in a patient treated with low doses of aspirin, and review the literature for possible etiologies for this condition. In addition, we compare the utility of the various diagnostic modalities in this uncommon condition.
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        Spontaneous intramural rupture and intramural haematoma of the oesophagus.

         Gary Kerr (1980)
        Spontaneous intramural rupture or intramural haematoma of the oesophagus is a rare cause of acute pain in the chest and upper abdomen. Much less ominous than spontaneous complete rupture from which it must be distinguished, it seldom if ever necessitates operation. Five new cases are described and reviewed together with 15 collected from published reports. The dominant symptom of every case was severe and constant retrosternal or epigastric pain; concomitant dysphagia was mentioned in 11 cases. In seven the pain was preceded by or coincided with vomiting. The condition was related to other stresses in three and appeared to be truly spontaneous in 10. In approximately one-third of cases it started suddenly but more often it began as discomfort worsening rapidly. Fourteen patients vomited blood after experiencing pain but only four were given transfusions. In contradistinction to complete rupture, none had surgical emphysema and plain chest radiographs were unremarkable. All had abnormal gastrografin or barium swallows. Intramural haematomas with or without mucosal tears were seen in the 11 cases in which oesophagoscopy was performed. Fifteen patients made rapid and complete recoveries on conservative management. Of the four who did not respond satisfactorily, one had the oesophagus repaired, two had drainage of the mediastinum after failure to find the false lumen at thoracotomy, and one had only an abdominal exploration. The only death in the whole series occurred after a disastrous emergency exploration and subsequent total oesophagectomy.
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          Esophageal hematoma associated with thrombocytopenia.

          Esophageal hematoma secondary to thrombocytopenia has only recently been described in the literature in a single case report. This article presents the clinical manifestations and radiographic findings of 4 additional cases of esophageal hematoma secondary to thrombocytopenia. Three patients were receiving treatment for leukemia, and the other patient had aplastic anemia. Previously reported cases of esophageal hematomas from other causes are reviewed.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, KEPCO Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Min Jeong Kim. Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, KEPCO Medical Center, 308 Uicheon-ro, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703, Korea. Tel: +82-2-901-3681, Fax: +82-2-901-3684, jfkone@ 123456naver.com
            Journal
            Clin Endosc
            Clin Endosc
            CE
            Clinical Endoscopy
            The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
            2234-2400
            2234-2443
            November 2012
            30 November 2012
            : 45
            : 4
            : 417-420
            23251891
            3521945
            10.5946/ce.2012.45.4.417
            Copyright © 2012 Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Case Report

            Radiology & Imaging

            endoscopic biopsy, aspirin, intramural hematoma, esophagus

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