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      A novel form of wasp mimicry in a new species of praying mantis from the Amazon rainforest, Vespamantoida wherleyi gen. nov. sp. nov. (Mantodea, Mantoididae)

      , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2

      PeerJ

      PeerJ Inc.

      Hymenoptera, Mantoida, Neotropics, Praying mantis, Mimicry, Wasp, Morphology, Mantodea

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          Abstract

          A wasp mimicking praying mantis (Mantodea) of the early evolving Mantoididae family was discovered in 2013 at a research station near the Amazon River in Northern Peru. This adult specimen exhibited a striking bright red/orange and black coloration pattern that was undocumented in all known praying mantis species. We tested the status of this new specimen using external morphology, male genital dissections, and geographic distribution. Our findings demonstrate the specimen to represent a new species, Vespamantoida wherleyi gen. nov. sp. nov., that is closely allied with a recently described species, Mantoida toulgoeti Roy, 2010, both of which are included within the newly erected genus. To support our actions, we present high resolution images of museum preserved and living specimens, morphological illustrations, a generic-level distribution map, and recorded video of the behavior of the holotype taken in the field at the time of collection. The bright red/orange coloration contrasted with black markings, the general appearance of a hymenopteran that includes a narrowed wasp waist, and the locomotory patterns and antennal movements mark this newly discovered species as unique among all hymenopteran mimicking Mantoididae as well as all other praying mantises.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Phylogeny of Dictyoptera: Dating the Origin of Cockroaches, Praying Mantises and Termites with Molecular Data and Controlled Fossil Evidence

          Understanding the origin and diversification of organisms requires a good phylogenetic estimate of their age and diversification rates. This estimate can be difficult to obtain when samples are limited and fossil records are disputed, as in Dictyoptera. To choose among competing hypotheses of origin for dictyopteran suborders, we root a phylogenetic analysis (~800 taxa, 10 kbp) within a large selection of outgroups and calibrate datings with fossils attributed to lineages with clear synapomorphies. We find the following topology: (mantises, (other cockroaches, (Cryptocercidae, termites)). Our datings suggest that crown-Dictyoptera—and stem-mantises—would date back to the Late Carboniferous (~ 300 Mya), a result compatible with the oldest putative fossil of stem-dictyoptera. Crown-mantises, however, would be much more recent (~ 200 Mya; Triassic/Jurassic boundary). This pattern (i.e., old origin and more recent diversification) suggests a scenario of replacement in carnivory among polyneopterous insects. The most recent common ancestor of (cockroaches + termites) would date back to the Permian (~275 Mya), which contradicts the hypothesis of a Devonian origin of cockroaches. Stem-termites would date back to the Triassic/Jurassic boundary, which refutes a Triassic origin. We suggest directions in extant and extinct species sampling to sharpen this chronological framework and dictyopteran evolutionary studies.
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            Phylogeny of Mantodea based on molecular data: evolution of a charismatic predator

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              Reconstructing the origins of praying mantises (Dictyoptera, Mantodea): the roles of Gondwanan vicariance and morphological convergence

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ
                PeerJ Inc. (San Diego, USA )
                2167-8359
                17 October 2019
                2019
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Cleveland Museum of Natural History , Cleveland, OH, USA
                [2 ]Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University , Cleveland, OH, USA
                Article
                7886
                10.7717/peerj.7886
                6812689
                © 2019 Svenson and Rodrigues

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa (CNPq) under the program Ciências sem Fronteiras and the National Science Foundation
                Award ID: DEB-1216309
                This project was supported by the Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa (CNPq) under the program Ciências sem Fronteiras and the National Science Foundation (DEB-1216309). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Biodiversity
                Entomology
                Taxonomy

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