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      New oral anticoagulants in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: a review of pharmacokinetics, safety, efficacy, quality of life, and cost effectiveness

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          Abstract

          Atrial fibrillation (AF) continues to be a leading cause of cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality resulting from cardioembolic stroke. Oral anticoagulation therapy has been shown to decrease the incidence of cardioembolic stroke in patients with AF by more than 50%. Appropriate use of anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists requires precise adherence and monitoring. A number of factors that potentially induce patients’ dissatisfaction reduce quality of patient life. New direct oral anticoagulants, such as the direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban, and the thrombin inhibitor dabigatran, were developed to overcome the limitations of the conventional anticoagulant drugs. However, models to optimize the benefit of therapy and to ensure that therapy can be safely continued are missing for the new oral anticoagulants. This review will briefly describe the new oral anticoagulants dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban with focus on their use for prevention of embolic events in AF. Moreover, it will discuss the safety, efficacy, cost data, and benefit for patients’ quality of life and adherence.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention: the AnTicoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) Study.

          Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in elderly persons and a potent risk factor for stroke. However, recent prevalence and projected future numbers of persons with atrial fibrillation are not well described. To estimate prevalence of atrial fibrillation and US national projections of the numbers of persons with atrial fibrillation through the year 2050. Cross-sectional study of adults aged 20 years or older who were enrolled in a large health maintenance organization in California and who had atrial fibrillation diagnosed between July 1, 1996, and December 31, 1997. Prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the study population of 1.89 million; projected number of persons in the United States with atrial fibrillation between 1995-2050. A total of 17 974 adults with diagnosed atrial fibrillation were identified during the study period; 45% were aged 75 years or older. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation was 0.95% (95% confidence interval, 0.94%-0.96%). Atrial fibrillation was more common in men than in women (1.1% vs 0.8%; P<.001). Prevalence increased from 0.1% among adults younger than 55 years to 9.0% in persons aged 80 years or older. Among persons aged 50 years or older, prevalence of atrial fibrillation was higher in whites than in blacks (2.2% vs 1.5%; P<.001). We estimate approximately 2.3 million US adults currently have atrial fibrillation. We project that this will increase to more than 5.6 million (lower bound, 5.0; upper bound, 6.3) by the year 2050, with more than 50% of affected individuals aged 80 years or older. Our study confirms that atrial fibrillation is common among older adults and provides a contemporary basis for estimates of prevalence in the United States. The number of patients with atrial fibrillation is likely to increase 2.5-fold during the next 50 years, reflecting the growing proportion of elderly individuals. Coordinated efforts are needed to face the increasing challenge of optimal stroke prevention and rhythm management in patients with atrial fibrillation.
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            The effect of dabigatran plasma concentrations and patient characteristics on the frequency of ischemic stroke and major bleeding in atrial fibrillation patients: the RE-LY Trial (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy).

            The goal of this study was to analyze the impact of dabigatran plasma concentrations, patient demographics, and aspirin (ASA) use on frequencies of ischemic strokes/systemic emboli and major bleeds in atrial fibrillation patients. The efficacy and safety of dabigatran etexilate were demonstrated in the RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy) trial, but a therapeutic concentration range has not been defined. In a pre-specified analysis of RE-LY, plasma concentrations of dabigatran were determined in patients treated with dabigatran etexilate 110 mg twice daily (bid) or 150 mg bid and correlated with the clinical outcomes of ischemic stroke/systemic embolism and major bleeding using univariate and multivariate logistic regression and Cox regression models. Patient demographics and ASA use were assessed descriptively and as covariates. Plasma concentrations were obtained from 9,183 patients, with 112 ischemic strokes/systemic emboli (1.3%) and 323 major bleeds (3.8%) recorded. Dabigatran levels were dependent on renal function, age, weight, and female sex, but not ethnicity, geographic region, ASA use, or clopidogrel use. A multiple logistic regression model (c-statistic 0.657, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61 to 0.71) showed that the risk of ischemic events was inversely related to trough dabigatran concentrations (p = 0.045), with age and previous stroke (both p < 0.0001) as significant covariates. Multiple logistic regression (c-statistic 0.715, 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.74) showed major bleeding risk increased with dabigatran exposure (p < 0.0001), age (p < 0.0001), ASA use (p < 0.0003), and diabetes (p = 0.018) as significant covariates. Ischemic stroke and bleeding outcomes were correlated with dabigatran plasma concentrations. Age was the most important covariate. Individual benefit-risk might be improved by tailoring dabigatran dose after considering selected patient characteristics. (Randomized Evaluation of Long Term Anticoagulant Therapy [RE-LY] With Dabigatran Etexilate; NCT00262600). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              A specific antidote for reversal of anticoagulation by direct and indirect inhibitors of coagulation factor Xa.

              Inhibitors of coagulation factor Xa (fXa) have emerged as a new class of antithrombotics but lack effective antidotes for patients experiencing serious bleeding. We designed and expressed a modified form of fXa as an antidote for fXa inhibitors. This recombinant protein (r-Antidote, PRT064445) is catalytically inactive and lacks the membrane-binding γ-carboxyglutamic acid domain of native fXa but retains the ability of native fXa to bind direct fXa inhibitors as well as low molecular weight heparin-activated antithrombin III (ATIII). r-Antidote dose-dependently reversed the inhibition of fXa by direct fXa inhibitors and corrected the prolongation of ex vivo clotting times by such inhibitors. In rabbits treated with the direct fXa inhibitor rivaroxaban, r-Antidote restored hemostasis in a liver laceration model. The effect of r-Antidote was mediated by reducing plasma anti-fXa activity and the non-protein bound fraction of the fXa inhibitor in plasma. In rats, r-Antidote administration dose-dependently and completely corrected increases in blood loss resulting from ATIII-dependent anticoagulation by enoxaparin or fondaparinux. r-Antidote has the potential to be used as a universal antidote for a broad range of fXa inhibitors.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2014
                17 June 2014
                : 8
                : 789-798
                Affiliations
                Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital Frankfurt/Main, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Haemostasis, Frankfurt, Germany
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Helen Mani, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital Frankfurt/Main, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Haemostasis, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt, Germany, Email Helen.Mani@ 123456kgu.de
                Article
                dddt-8-789
                10.2147/DDDT.S45644
                4069048
                © 2014 Mani and Lindhoff-Last. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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