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      Phosphate and Kidney Healthy Aging


      Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

      S. Karger AG

      Aging, Phosphate, Chronic kidney disease, Cardiovascular disease, Mortality

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          Background: The aging population is increasing rapidly, much faster than our understanding on how to promote healthy aging free of multimorbidities. The aging kidney shows a decline in its function. Whether this decline is preventable or physiological is still debated. Main risks factors for developing CKD are aging common comorbidites, such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Phosphate is vital for our organism, but it is also present in a great variety of food products as food additive and preservative. Due to the higher consumption of processed food in the last century, concern has arisen if a chronic high consumption of phosphate may be toxic impacting on healthy aging. Summary: Several studies show an association between higher serum phosphate levels and a higher risk of overall mortality and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, higher phosphate levels also worsen CKD progression and may contribute to renal dysfunction in healthy individuals. Acute high phosphate intake is rare but can cause acute kidney injury. Yet, the question if controlling phosphate intake may modulate serum phosphate concentrations remains unanswered, as assessment of phosphate intake is still a difficult task. Phosphate consumption estimations by dietary recalls are largely underestimated, especially in populations groups consuming high amount of processed food. Key Message: A healthy diet with phosphate source from food may contribute to promote healthy aging and longevity.

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          Most cited references 56

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          The hallmarks of aging.

          Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of physiological integrity, leading to impaired function and increased vulnerability to death. This deterioration is the primary risk factor for major human pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. Aging research has experienced an unprecedented advance over recent years, particularly with the discovery that the rate of aging is controlled, at least to some extent, by genetic pathways and biochemical processes conserved in evolution. This Review enumerates nine tentative hallmarks that represent common denominators of aging in different organisms, with special emphasis on mammalian aging. These hallmarks are: genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication. A major challenge is to dissect the interconnectedness between the candidate hallmarks and their relative contributions to aging, with the final goal of identifying pharmaceutical targets to improve human health during aging, with minimal side effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Relation between serum phosphate level and cardiovascular event rate in people with coronary disease.

              Higher levels of serum phosphate are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, especially in the setting of overt hyperphosphatemia. Given the biological importance of phosphorus, it is plausible that higher levels of serum phosphate within the normal range may also be associated with adverse outcomes. We performed a post hoc analysis of data from the Cholesterol And Recurrent Events (CARE) study. Baseline serum phosphate levels were measured in 4127 fasting participants who were randomized to receive pravastatin 40 mg daily or placebo and followed up for a median of 59.7 months. We used Cox proportional-hazards models to examine the association between serum phosphate and adverse clinical outcomes after adjustment for potential confounders. During nearly 60 months of follow-up, 375 participants died. A significant association was noted between baseline serum phosphate level and the age-, race-, and sex-adjusted risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio per 1 mg/dL, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.58). After categorization based on baseline phosphate level ( or =4 mg/dL) and further adjustment, a graded independent relation between phosphate and death was observed (P for trend=0.03). For instance, participants with serum phosphate > or =3.5 mg/dL had an adjusted hazard ratio for death of 1.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.59) compared with those with serum phosphate of <3.5 mg/dL. Higher levels of serum phosphate were also associated with increased risk of new heart failure, myocardial infarction, and the composite of coronary death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, but not the risk of stroke. We found a graded independent relation between higher levels of serum phosphate and the risk of death and cardiovascular events in people with prior myocardial infarction, most of whom had serum phosphate levels within the normal range. Given the ready availability and low cost of serum phosphate assays, this finding may prove clinically useful.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                December 2020
                13 October 2020
                : 45
                : 6
                : 802-811
                Institute of Physiology, University of Zurich, and the National Center for Competence in Research NCCR Kidney.CH, Zurich, Switzerland
                Author notes
                *Isabel Rubio-Aliaga, Institute of Physiology, University of Zurich and the National Center for, Competence in Research NCCR Kidney.CH, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Zurich 8057 (Switzerland),
                509831 Kidney Blood Press Res 2020;45:802–811
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY). Usage, derivative works and distribution are permitted provided that proper credit is given to the author and the original publisher.Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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