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      Supplementary information for "Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor"


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          This is the updated supplementary information to accompany "Quantum supremacy using a programmable superconducting processor", an article published in the October 24, 2019 issue of Nature. The main article is freely available at Summary of changes relative to the supplementary information dated October 8, 2019: Ref [49] is now published; Correction of notation and definition for variational distance in Sec XI B. Correction of corresponding equation in footnote (Ref [101]); Down-sampling of images in Figs. S1 and S4 to comply with arXiv storage limit; Miscellaneous typographical corrections; Clarification in Fig. S8 caption; URL for experimental data repository added to Ref [54],

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          Most cited references 32

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          Bootstrap Methods: Another Look at the Jackknife

           B Efron (1979)
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            Strong coupling of a single photon to a superconducting qubit using circuit quantum electrodynamics.

            The interaction of matter and light is one of the fundamental processes occurring in nature, and its most elementary form is realized when a single atom interacts with a single photon. Reaching this regime has been a major focus of research in atomic physics and quantum optics for several decades and has generated the field of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Here we perform an experiment in which a superconducting two-level system, playing the role of an artificial atom, is coupled to an on-chip cavity consisting of a superconducting transmission line resonator. We show that the strong coupling regime can be attained in a solid-state system, and we experimentally observe the coherent interaction of a superconducting two-level system with a single microwave photon. The concept of circuit quantum electrodynamics opens many new possibilities for studying the strong interaction of light and matter. This system can also be exploited for quantum information processing and quantum communication and may lead to new approaches for single photon generation and detection.
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              Demonstration of two-qubit algorithms with a superconducting quantum processor.

              Quantum computers, which harness the superposition and entanglement of physical states, could outperform their classical counterparts in solving problems with technological impact-such as factoring large numbers and searching databases. A quantum processor executes algorithms by applying a programmable sequence of gates to an initialized register of qubits, which coherently evolves into a final state containing the result of the computation. Building a quantum processor is challenging because of the need to meet simultaneously requirements that are in conflict: state preparation, long coherence times, universal gate operations and qubit readout. Processors based on a few qubits have been demonstrated using nuclear magnetic resonance, cold ion trap and optical systems, but a solid-state realization has remained an outstanding challenge. Here we demonstrate a two-qubit superconducting processor and the implementation of the Grover search and Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithms. We use a two-qubit interaction, tunable in strength by two orders of magnitude on nanosecond timescales, which is mediated by a cavity bus in a circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture. This interaction allows the generation of highly entangled states with concurrence up to 94 per cent. Although this processor constitutes an important step in quantum computing with integrated circuits, continuing efforts to increase qubit coherence times, gate performance and register size will be required to fulfil the promise of a scalable technology.

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                23 October 2019


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                Nature, Vol 574, 505 (2019)
                66 pages, 50 figures

                Quantum physics & Field theory


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