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      Alendronate Can Improve Bone Alterations in Experimental Diabetes by Preventing Antiosteogenic, Antichondrogenic, and Proadipocytic Effects of AGEs on Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells

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          Abstract

          Bisphosphonates such as alendronate are antiosteoporotic drugs that inhibit the activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and secondarily promote osteoblastic function. Diabetes increases bone-matrix-associated advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that impair bone marrow progenitor cell (BMPC) osteogenic potential and decrease bone quality. Here we investigated the in vitro effect of alendronate and/or AGEs on the osteoblastogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic potential of BMPC isolated from nondiabetic untreated rats. We also evaluated the in vivo effect of alendronate (administered orally to rats with insulin-deficient Diabetes) on long-bone microarchitecture and BMPC multilineage potential. In vitro, the osteogenesis (Runx2, alkaline phosphatase, type 1 collagen, and mineralization) and chondrogenesis (glycosaminoglycan production) of BMPC were both decreased by AGEs, while coincubation with alendronate prevented these effects. The adipogenesis of BMPC (PPAR γ, intracellular triglycerides, and lipase) was increased by AGEs, and this was prevented by coincubation with alendronate. In vivo, experimental Diabetes (a) decreased femoral trabecular bone area, osteocyte density, and osteoclastic TRAP activity; (b) increased bone marrow adiposity; and (c) deregulated BMPC phenotypic potential (increasing adipogenesis and decreasing osteogenesis and chondrogenesis). Orally administered alendronate prevented all these Diabetes-induced effects on bone. Thus, alendronate could improve bone alterations in diabetic rats by preventing the antiosteogenic, antichondrogenic, and proadipocytic effects of AGEs on BMPC.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of bisphosphonates.

          Bisphosphonates currently are the most important class of antiresorptive agents used in the treatment of metabolic bone diseases, including tumor-associated osteolysis and hypercalcemia, Paget's disease, and osteoporosis. These compounds have high affinity for calcium and therefore target to bone mineral, where they appear to be internalized selectively by bone-resorbing osteoclasts and inhibit osteoclast function. This article reviews the pharmacology of bisphosphonates and the relation between the chemical structure of bisphosphonates and antiresorptive potency, and describes recent new discoveries of their molecular mechanisms of action in osteoclasts. Bisphosphonates can be grouped into two pharmacologic classes with distinct molecular mechanisms of action. Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (the most potent class) act by inhibiting the mevalonate pathway in osteoclasts, thereby preventing prenylation of small GTPase signaling proteins required for osteoclast function. Bisphosphonates that lack a nitrogen in the chemical structure do not inhibit protein prenylation and have a different mode of action that may involve the formation of cytotoxic metabolites in osteoclasts or inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Bisphosphonates are highly effective inhibitors of bone resorption that selectively affect osteoclasts. After more than 30 years of clinical use, their molecular mechanisms of action are only just becoming clear.
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            Playing with bone and fat.

            The relationship between bone and fat formation within the bone marrow microenvironment is complex and remains an area of active investigation. Classical in vitro and in vivo studies strongly support an inverse relationship between the commitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells or stromal cells to the adipocyte and osteoblast lineage pathways. In this review, we focus on the recent literature exploring the mechanisms underlying these differentiation events and discuss their implications relevant to osteoporosis and regenerative medicine. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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              Directing mesenchymal stem cells to bone to augment bone formation and increase bone mass

               Min Guan,  Wei Yao,  Ruiwu Liu (2012)
              Aging reduces the number of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the bone marrow which leads to impairment of osteogenesis. However, if MSCs could be directed toward osteogenic differentiation, they could be a viable therapeutic option for bone regeneration. We have developed a method to direct the MSCs to the bone surface by attaching a synthetic high affinity and specific peptidomimetic ligand (LLP2A) against integrin α4β1 on the MSC surface, to a bisphosphonate (alendronate, Ale) that has high affinity for bone. LLP2A-Ale increased MSCs migration and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. A single intravenous injection of LLP2A-Ale increased trabecular bone formation and bone mass in both xenotransplantation and immune competent mice. Additionally, LLP2A-Ale prevented trabecular bone loss after peak bone acquisition was achieved or following estrogen deficiency. These results provide a proof of principle that LLP2A-Ale can direct MSCs to the bone to form new bone and increase bone strength.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2016
                20 October 2016
                : 2016
                Affiliations
                Laboratorio de Investigaciones en Osteopatías y Metabolismo Mineral (LIOMM), Department of Biological Sciences, School of Exact Sciences, National University of La Plata, Calle 47 y 115, 1900 La Plata, Argentina
                Author notes
                *Antonio Desmond McCarthy: mccarthy@ 123456biol.unlp.edu.ar

                Academic Editor: Pengjun Shi

                Article
                10.1155/2016/5891925
                5093246
                Copyright © 2016 Sara Rocío Chuguransky et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata
                Funded by: Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires
                Funded by: Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Técnológica
                Award ID: BID-1728/OC-AR
                Award ID: PICT 1083
                Award ID: PICT-2012-0053
                Categories
                Research Article

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