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      SMARCB1 (INI-1)-deficient Carcinomas of the Sinonasal Tract :

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          Abstract

          SMARCB1 (INI-1) is a tumor-suppressor gene located on chromosome 22q11.2. Its gene product is ubiquitously expressed in nuclei of all normal tissues. SMARCB1 gene inactivation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a diverse group of malignant neoplasms that tend to share "rhabdoid" cytomorphology. This group of SMARCB1-deficient tumors is now further expanded by a subset of carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract. SMARCB1 immunostaining was performed on 142 sinonasal carcinomas. Tumors that showed loss of expression were further characterized for SMARCB1 deletions by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Nine of 142 (6%) primary sinonasal carcinomas showed loss of SMARCB1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Five patients were women, and patients ranged in age from 33 to 78 years (mean 59 y). The SMARCB1-deficient tumors were characterized by nests, sheets, and cords of cells without any histologic evidence of specific (eg, squamous or glandular) differentiation. The tumors comprised varying proportions of basaloid and rhabdoid cells. The SMARCB1-deficient carcinomas had been diagnosed as nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinomas (n=3), sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas (n=2), myoepithelial carcinoma (n=2), nonintestinal adenocarcinoma (n=1), and carcinoma, not otherwise specified (n=1). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed SMARCB1 deletions in 6 of 8 (75%) carcinomas. The SMARCB1-deficient carcinomas did not harbor human papillomavirus or NUT-1 alterations. Six patients presented with T4 disease, 5 patients developed local recurrences and/or distant metastases, and 4 died of their disease. Inactivation of the SMARCB1 tumor-suppressor gene appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of a subset of sinonasal carcinomas, further expanding the family of SMARCB1-deficient neoplasms and further delineating a bewildering group of poorly/undifferentiated, aggressive carcinomas arising at this site. The ability to detect SMARCB1 loss by immunohistochemistry, particularly when dealing with poorly differentiated carcinomas with basaloid or rhabdoid features, should facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of these sinonasal carcinomas including clinical behavior and response to targeted therapies.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors of infancy and childhood: definition of an entity.

           R Packer,  L Rorke,  J Biegel (1996)
          Clinical and pathological features of 52 infants and children with atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATT/RhT) of the central nervous system are defined. This tumor is typically misdiagnosed as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) primarily because 70% of ATT/RhTs contain fields indistinguishable from classic PNETs. Separation of these two tumor types is crucial because the prognosis for ATT/RhT is given even when treatment includes surgery with or without radio and/or chemotherapy. These tumors are most common in infants less than 2 years of age. The cases described in this study arose in intracranially in all but one instance, although one-third had already spread throughout the subarachnoid space at presentation. Clinical signs and symptoms and radiological features do not distinguish ATT/RhTs from PNETs. The tumors are composed entirely (13%) or partly (77%) or rhabdoid cells. Seventy percent contains fields of typical PNET alone or in combinations with mesenchymal and/r epithelial elements. The immunohistochemical profile is unique: epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin, and smooth-muscle actin are positive in the majority of tumors and markers for germ-cell tumors are consistently negative. Abnormalities of chromosome 22 distinguish ATT/RhTs from PNETs, which typically display an i(17q) abnormality.
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            SMARCB1/INI1 tumor suppressor gene is frequently inactivated in epithelioid sarcomas.

            Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare soft tissue neoplasm of uncertain lineage that usually arises in the distal extremities of adults, presents a high rate of recurrences and metastases and frequently poses diagnostic dilemmas. The recently reported large-cell "proximal-type" variant is characterized by increased aggressiveness, deep location, preferential occurrence in proximal/axial regions of older patients, and rhabdoid features. Previous cytogenetic studies indicated that the most frequent alterations associated with this tumor entity affect chromosome 22. In this study, combined spectral karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and array-based comparative genomic hybridization analyses of two proximal-type cases harboring a rearrangement involving 10q26 and 22q11 revealed that the 22q11 breakpoints were located in a 150-kb region containing the SMARCB1/INI1 gene, and that homozygous deletion of the gene was present in the tumor tissue. The SMARCB1/INI1 gene encodes for an invariant subunit of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex and has been previously reported to act as a tumor suppressor gene frequently inactivated in infantile malignant rhabdoid tumors. We analyzed SMARCB1/INI1 gene status in nine additional epithelioid sarcoma cases (four proximal types and five conventional types) and altogether we identified deletions of SMARCB1/INI1 gene in 5 of 11 cases, all proximal types. We confirmed and further extended the number of cases with SMARCB1/INI1 inactivation to 6 of 11 cases, by real-time quantitative PCR analysis of mRNA expression and by SMARCB1/INI1 immunohistochemistry. Overall, these results point to SMARCB1/INI1 gene involvement in the genesis and/or progression of epithelioid sarcomas. Analysis of larger series of epithelioid sarcomas will be necessary to highlight putative clinically relevant features related to SMARCB1/INI1 inactivation.
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              Human papillomavirus-related carcinomas of the sinonasal tract.

              High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is an established cause of head and neck carcinomas arising in the oropharynx. The presence of HPV has also been reported in some carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract, but little is known about their overall incidence or their clinicopathologic profile. The surgical pathology archives of The Johns Hopkins Hospital were searched for all carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract from 1995 to 2011, and tissue microarrays were constructed. p16 immunohistochemical analysis and DNA in situ hybridization for high-risk types of HPV were performed. Demographic and clinical outcome data were extracted from patient medical records. Of 161 sinonasal carcinomas, 34 (21%) were positive for high-risk HPV DNA, including type 16 (82%), type 31/33 (12%), and type 18 (6%). HPV-positive carcinomas consisted of 28 squamous cell carcinomas and variants (15 nonkeratinizing or partially keratinizing, 4 papillary, 5 adenosquamous, 4 basaloid), 1 small cell carcinoma, 1 sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, and 4 carcinomas that were difficult to classify but exhibited adenoid cystic carcinoma-like features. Immunohistochemistry for p16 was positive in 59/161 (37%) cases, and p16 expression strongly correlated with the presence of HPV DNA: 33 of 34 (97%) HPV-positive tumors exhibited high p16 expression, whereas only 26 of 127 (20%) HPV-negative tumors were p16 positive (P<0.0001). The HPV-related carcinomas occurred in 19 men and 15 women ranging in age from 33 to 87 years (mean, 54 y). A trend toward improved survival was observed in the HPV-positive group (hazard ratio=0.58, 95% confidence interval [0.26, 1.28]). The presence of high-risk HPV in 21% of sinonasal carcinomas confirms HPV as an important oncologic agent of carcinomas arising in the sinonasal tract. Although nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histologic type, there is a wide morphologic spectrum of HPV-related disease that includes a variant that resembles adenoid cystic carcinoma. The distinctiveness of these HPV-related carcinomas of the sinonasal tract with respect to risk factors, clinical behavior, and response to therapy remains to be clarified.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The American Journal of Surgical Pathology
                The American Journal of Surgical Pathology
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0147-5185
                2014
                September 2014
                : 38
                : 9
                : 1282-1289
                Article
                10.1097/PAS.0000000000000285
                4134731
                25007146
                © 2014

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