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      Improved Outcomes for Lap-Banding Using the Insu flow ® Device Compared with Heated-Only Gas

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          Abstract

          Background and Objectives:

          Preconditioning gas by humidification and warming the pneumoperitoneum improves laparoscopic outcomes. This prevents peritoneal desiccation and detrimental events related to traditional cold-dry gas. Few comparisons have been done comparing traditional cold-dry, heated-only, and humidified-warmed carbon dioxide.

          Methods:

          A prospective, controlled, randomized, double-blind study of laparoscopic gastric banding included 113 patients and compared traditional dry-cold (n=35) versus dry-heated (n=40), versus humidified-warm gas (n=38). Pain medications were standardized for all groups. Endpoints were recovery room length of stay, pain location, pain intensity, and total pain medications used postoperatively for up to 10 days.

          Results:

          The humidified-warmed group had statistically significant differences from the other 2 groups with improvement in all end points. The dry-heated group had significantly more pain medication use and increased shoulder and chest pain than the other 2 groups had.

          Conclusion:

          Using warm-humidified gas for laparoscopic gastric banding reduces shoulder pain, shortens recovery room length of stay, and decreases pain medication requirements for up to 10 days postoperatively. Dry-heated gas may cause additional complications as is indicated by the increase in pain medication use and pain intensity.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Cytokine Dysregulation, Inflammation and Well-Being

          Cytokines mediate and control immune and inflammatory responses. Complex interactions exist between cytokines, inflammation and the adaptive responses in maintaining homeostasis , health, and well-being. Like the stress response, the inflammatory reaction is crucial for survival and is meant to be tailored to the stimulus and time. A full-fledged systemic inflammatory reaction results in stimulation of four major programs: the acute-phase reaction, the sickness syndrome, the pain program, and the stress response, mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Common human diseases such as atopy/allergy, autoimmunity, chronic infections and sepsis are characterized by a dysregulation of the pro- versus anti-inflammatory and T helper (Th)1versus Th2 cytokine balance. Recent evidence also indicates the involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and major depression, and conditions such as visceral-type obesity, metabolic syndrome and sleep disturbances. During inflammation, the activation of the stress system, through induction of a Th2 shift, protects the organism from systemic ‘overshooting’ with Th1/pro-inflammatory cytokines. Under certain conditions, however, stress hormones may actually facilitate inflammation through induction of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein production and through activation of the corticotropin-releasing hormone/substance P-histamine axis. Thus, a dysfunctional neuroendocrine-immune interface associated with abnormalities of the ‘systemic anti-inflammatory feedback’ and/or ‘hyperactivity’ of the local pro-inflammatory factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of atopic/allergic and autoimmune diseases, obesity, depression, and atherosclerosis. These abnormalities and the failure of the adaptive systems to resolve inflammation affect the well-being of the individual, including behavioral parameters, quality of life and sleep, as well as indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health. These hypotheses require further investigation, but the answers should provide critical insights into mechanisms underlying a variety of common human immune-related diseases.
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            Pain after laparoscopy.

            In the context of the much-heralded advantages of laparoscopic surgery, it can be easy to overlook postlaparoscopy pain as a serious problem, yet as many as 80% of patients will require opioid analgesia. It generally is accepted that pain after laparoscopy is multifactorial, and the surgeon is in a unique position to influence many of the putative causes by relatively minor changes in technique. This article reviews the relevant literature concerning the topic of pain after laparoscopy. The following factors, in varying degrees, have been implicated in postlaparoscopy pain: distension-induced neuropraxia of the phrenic nerves, acid intraperitoneal milieu during the operation, residual intra-abdominal gas after laparoscopy, humidity of the insufflated gas, volume of the insufflated gas, wound size, presence of drains, anesthetic drugs and their postoperation effects, and sociocultural and individual factors. On the basis of the factors implicated in postlaparoscopy pain, the following recommendations can be made in an attempt to reduce such pain: emphathically consider each patients' unique sociocultural and individual pain experience; inject port sites with local anesthesia at the start of the operation; keep intra-abdominal pressure during pneumoperitoneum below 15 mmHg, avoiding pressure peaks and prolonged insufflation; use humidified gas at body temperature if available; use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at the time of induction; attempt to evacuate all intraperitoneal gas at the end of the operation; and use drains only when required, rather than as a routine.
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              Pain after laparoscopy.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JSLS
                JSLS
                jsls
                jsls
                JSLS
                JSLS : Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
                Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons (Miami, FL )
                1086-8089
                1938-3797
                Jul-Sep 2009
                : 13
                : 3
                : 302-305
                Affiliations
                Surgery Center of Richardson, Richardson, Texas USA.
                Author notes
                Address reprint requests to: Richard Benavides, MD, 7920 Belt Line Road, Ste. 310, Richardson, TX 75254, USA. Telephone: (972) 331-8100, Fax: (972) 331-8110, E-mail: scasey@ 123456aigb.com
                Article
                3015987
                19793466
                © 2009 by JSLS, Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/), which permits for noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not altered in any way.

                Product
                Categories
                Scientific Papers

                Surgery

                insuflow®, desiccation, humidified, pain, pneumoperitoneum, lap-band

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