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      Does tramadol affect coagulation status of patients with malignancy?

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          Abstract

          Aim:

          The study investigated the direct effects of tramadol on the coagulation status of women with gynecologic malignancies in vitro.

          Materials and Methods:

          Citrated whole-blood samples from 21 patients with gynecologic tumors were spiked ex vivo with 2 or 6 μl/ml tramadol. Thrombelastography (TEG) analysis was performed using ROTEM ® to assess clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT) and maximum clot formation (MCF).

          Results:

          In the INTEM assay, CT ( P < 0.05) and CFT ( P < 0.01) were significantly prolonged with tramadol at a 6 μl/ml concentration compared with baseline. There were no significant differences in MCF values between the baseline and the tramadol-treated samples ( P > 0.05). Blood medicated with tramadol (6 μl/ml) clotted slowly (increased CT and CFT).

          Conclusion:

          The changes observed by TEG demonstrated that tramadol impairs hemostasis in a concentration-dependent manner in the whole blood of women with gynecologic malignancies in vitro.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Laboratory investigation of hypercoagulability in cancer patients using rotation thrombelastography.

          The goal of this study was laboratory testing for hypercoagulability in patients with solid tumors using rotation thrombelastogram (ROTEM) and correlate ROTEM parameters with routine coagulation tests. A total of 78 untreated patients with cancer were included: 28 gastrointestinal system tumors (group 1), 27 respiratory system tumors (group 2), and 23 miscellaneus group of ovarian, renal, nasopharyngeal, mesothelioma, and unknown origin (group 3). Platelet count was significantly increased in group 2 in respect to group 3 (P 0.7) and CFT in all assays (INTEM, EXTEM, FIBTEM, APTEM). There were also statistically significant correlations between platelet number and other ROTEM parameters (INTEM-CFT, -MCF, EXTEM-CFT, -MCF, FIBTEM-MCF, APTEM-CFT, -MCF). In conclusions, our data demonstrates thromboelastographic signs of hypercoagulability in patients with solid tumors. ROTEM is able to identify the contribution of fibrinogen and platelets to clot strength in this patient population.
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            Does thromboelastography predict postoperative thromboembolic events? A systematic review of the literature.

            Since thromboelastography (TEG) can detect hypercoagulable states, it is a potentially useful test for predicting postoperative thromboembolic complications. Therefore, we performed a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the accuracy of TEG in predicting postoperative thromboembolic events. PUBMED and EMBASE electronic databases were searched by two independent investigators to identify prospective studies involving adult patients undergoing operative procedures in which a TEG test was performed perioperatively and outcomes were measured by reference standards. The quality of included studies was assessed and measures of diagnostic test accuracy were estimated for each included study. Ten studies (with a total of 1056 patients) were included in this analysis; however, only five reported measures of TEG test accuracy. The overall quality of the studies and level of diagnostic evaluation of the studies were highly variable, from poor to good. As there were variations in the definition of hypercoagulability, TEG methodology and patient characteristics, reference standards used and outcomes measured, a meta-analysis was not undertaken. The sensitivity and specificity ranged from 0% to 100% and 62% to 92%, respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio ranged from 1.5 to 27.7; area under the curve ranged from 0.57 to 0.91. Of the TEG variables, maximum amplitude seems to be the best parameter to identify hypercoagulable states and to predict thromboembolic events. The predictive accuracy of TEG for postoperative thromboembolic events is highly variable. To determine if the TEG is a clinically useful screening test in high-risk surgical populations, more prospective studies are needed.
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              Pain management today - what have we learned?

              Pain is a leading cause of morbidity worldwide, with published data showing its prevalence as high as 50% for chronic pain in the European population. This prevalence is likely to continue to rise, particularly in elderly people with comorbid conditions and complex aetiologies of pain. There is thus a rapidly growing demand for safe and effective pain management. Management of mild-to-moderate pain has traditionally been based upon the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the synthetic non-opioid analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen), the latter of which acts centrally, inhibiting brain cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and nitric oxide synthase. Both the NSAIDs and paracetamol are effective for mild-to-moderate pain and are widely recommended and used. However, NSAIDs may not be tolerated due to gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and can result in potentially fatal peptic ulceration and bleeding. Selective COX-2 inhibitors were developed to reduce the GI side effects and complications, but large-scale studies have highlighted another serious potential effect of anti-inflammatory drugs: cardiovascular events. Both the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) and the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) in the US have issued advice to apply cautions and restrictions when prescribing COX-2 inhibitors, particularly for patients at increased cardiovascular risk and for long-term use. The FDA also applied cardiovascular warnings with regard to nonselective NSAIDs. Both the EMEA and the FDA have recommended using the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration. These concerns and warnings have left physicians seeking safe alternatives to anti-inflammatory drugs for both short- and long-term uses in many patients. These developments have generated a climate of uncertainty in the absence of official guidance on the selection of alternative analgesic regimens. Amongst the possible strategies, combinations of drugs that provide analgesic efficacy at reduced individual doses may confer the optimal risk-benefit ratio for pain management in the long term or in patients at increased cardiovascular risk. Weak opioids devoid of serious organ-damaging effects combined with paracetamol may well be safer for long-term therapy. Fixed-dose combinations of paracetamol with weak opioids, such as codeine, dextropropoxyphene or tramadol are currently available. Paracetamol plus tramadol is an effective and safe multimodal analgesic regimen for the management of both acute and chronic moderate-to-severe pain. Re-evaluating the role of weak opioids, such as tramadol, and combinations in pain management may prove a valuable option for prescribers seeking alternatives to anti-inflammatory drugs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Indian J Pharmacol
                Indian J Pharmacol
                IJPharm
                Indian Journal of Pharmacology
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0253-7613
                1998-3751
                Jul-Aug 2014
                : 46
                : 4
                : 413-415
                Affiliations
                Department of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical School, Eskisehir, Turkey
                [1 ]Department of Hematology, Eskisehir Osmangazi University Medical School, Eskisehir, Turkey
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dr. Dilek Ceyhan, E-mail: dceyhan@ 123456ogu.edu.tr
                Article
                IJPharm-46-413
                10.4103/0253-7613.135954
                4118535
                Copyright: © Indian Journal of Pharmacology

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                coagulation, malignancy, thromboelastography, tramadol

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