The immunosuppressive drug tacrolimus requires strict therapeutic monitoring due to its narrow therapeutic index and great inter-individual variability. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (Cyp3A4) and Cyp3A5 are the most important contributors to tacrolimus metabolism while the P-glycoprotein pump (MDR-1) modulates its bioavailability. The objective was to investigate the association between Cyp3A4, Cyp3A5, and MDR-1 polymorphisms and tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in the early period after renal transplantation. Forty-four renal transplant recipients were genotyped for 8 Cyp3A4, 7 Cyp3A5, and 5 MDR-1 genetic variants affecting the proteins' expression and/or function. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus though levels were determined during the first week after transplantation and correlated with corresponding genotype. We found no correlation between Cyp3A4 polymorphism and tacrolimus pharmacokinetics. Patients who do not carry both Cyp3A5*3 alleles achieved lower mean dose-adjusted tacrolimus blood concentrations (p<0.001) and needed a longer time to reach the target concentration (10-12 ng/ml; p<0.001) compared to Cyp3A5*3 homozygotes. Patients with less than three copies of MDR-1 (T-129C, C3435T and G2677T) polymorphisms, associated with reduced expression of P-glycoprotein, had also lower dose-adjusted tacrolimus blood concentrations compared to patients having equal to or greater than three copies of MDR-1 genetic variants (P=0.003). There was no difference in the rate of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection among groups during the first 3 months after transplantation. The complete absence of Cyp3A5*3 allele and the accumulation of less than three copies of MDR-1 (T-129C, C3435T and G2677T) polymorphisms are associated with lower tacrolimus blood levels identifying these genotypes as markers for patients requiring higher tacrolimus doses.