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      Burden of Peripheral Artery Disease and Its Attributable Risk Factors in 204 Countries and Territories From 1990 to 2019

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          Abstract

          Background

          Data on burden of peripheral artery disease (PAD) and its attributable risk factors are valuable for policymaking. We aimed to estimate the burden and risk factors for PAD from 1990 to 2019.

          Methods

          We extracted the data on prevalence, incidence, death, years lived with disability (YLDs), and years of life lost (YLLs) from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 to measure PAD burden. Moreover, the attributable burden to PAD risk factors was also estimated.

          Results

          Globally, in 2019, 113,443,017 people lived with PAD and 10,504,092 new cases occurred, resulting in 74,063 deaths, 500,893 YLDs, and 1,035,487 YLLs. The absolute numbers of PAD prevalent and incident cases significantly increased between 1990 and 2019, contrasting with the decline trends in age-standardized prevalence and incidence rates. However, no statistically significant changes were detected in the global age-standardized death or YLL rates. The burden of PAD and its temporal trends varied significantly by location, gender, age group, and social-demographic status. Among all potentially modifiable risk factors, age-standardized PAD deaths worldwide were primarily attributable to high fasting plasma glucose, followed by high systolic blood pressure, tobacco, kidney dysfunction, diet high in sodium, and lead exposure.

          Conclusion

          PAD remained a serious public health problem worldwide. More strategies aimed at implementing cost-effective interventions and addressing modifiable risk factors should be carried out, especially in regions with high or increasing burden.

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          Most cited references37

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          Comparison of global estimates of prevalence and risk factors for peripheral artery disease in 2000 and 2010: a systematic review and analysis.

          Lower extremity peripheral artery disease is the third leading cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity, following coronary artery disease and stroke. This study provides the first comparison of the prevalence of peripheral artery disease between high-income countries (HIC) and low-income or middle-income countries (LMIC), establishes the primary risk factors for peripheral artery disease in these settings, and estimates the number of people living with peripheral artery disease regionally and globally. We did a systematic review of the literature on the prevalence of peripheral artery disease in which we searched for community-based studies since 1997 that defined peripheral artery disease as an ankle brachial index (ABI) lower than or equal to 0·90. We used epidemiological modelling to define age-specific and sex-specific prevalence rates in HIC and in LMIC and combined them with UN population numbers for 2000 and 2010 to estimate the global prevalence of peripheral artery disease. Within a subset of studies, we did meta-analyses of odds ratios (ORs) associated with 15 putative risk factors for peripheral artery disease to estimate their effect size in HIC and LMIC. We then used the risk factors to predict peripheral artery disease numbers in eight WHO regions (three HIC and five LMIC). 34 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, 22 from HIC and 12 from LMIC, including 112,027 participants, of which 9347 had peripheral artery disease. Sex-specific prevalence rates increased with age and were broadly similar in HIC and LMIC and in men and women. The prevalence in HIC at age 45-49 years was 5·28% (95% CI 3·38-8·17%) in women and 5·41% (3·41-8·49%) in men, and at age 85-89 years, it was 18·38% (11·16-28·76%) in women and 18·83% (12·03-28·25%) in men. Prevalence in men was lower in LMIC than in HIC (2·89% [2·04-4·07%] at 45-49 years and 14·94% [9·58-22·56%] at 85-89 years). In LMIC, rates were higher in women than in men, especially at younger ages (6·31% [4·86-8·15%] of women aged 45-49 years). Smoking was an important risk factor in both HIC and LMIC, with meta-OR for current smoking of 2·72 (95% CI 2·39-3·09) in HIC and 1·42 (1·25-1·62) in LMIC, followed by diabetes (1·88 [1·66-2·14] vs 1·47 [1·29-1·68]), hypertension (1·55 [1·42-1·71] vs 1·36 [1·24-1·50]), and hypercholesterolaemia (1·19 [1·07-1·33] vs 1·14 [1·03-1·25]). Globally, 202 million people were living with peripheral artery disease in 2010, 69·7% of them in LMIC, including 54·8 million in southeast Asia and 45·9 million in the western Pacific Region. During the preceding decade the number of individuals with peripheral artery disease increased by 28·7% in LMIC and 13·1% in HIC. In the 21st century, peripheral artery disease has become a global problem. Governments, non-governmental organisations, and the private sector in LMIC need to address the social and economic consequences, and assess the best strategies for optimum treatment and prevention of this disease. Peripheral Arterial Disease Research Coalition (Europe). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Epidemiology of coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndrome.

            The aim of this review is to summarize the incidence, prevalence, trend in mortality, and general prognosis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and a related condition, acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although CHD mortality has gradually declined over the last decades in western countries, this condition still causes about one-third of all deaths in people older than 35 years. This evidence, along with the fact that mortality from CHD is expected to continue increasing in developing countries, illustrates the need for implementing effective primary prevention approaches worldwide and identifying risk groups and areas for possible improvement.
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              Is Open Access

              Global, regional, and national prevalence and risk factors for peripheral artery disease in 2015: an updated systematic review and analysis

              Peripheral artery disease is a major cardiovascular disease that affected 202 million people worldwide in 2010. In the past decade, new epidemiological data on peripheral artery disease have emerged, enabling us to provide updated estimates of the prevalence and risk factors for peripheral artery disease globally and regionally and, for the first time, nationally.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Cardiovasc Med
                Front Cardiovasc Med
                Front. Cardiovasc. Med.
                Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2297-055X
                12 April 2022
                2022
                : 9
                : 868370
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of Neurosurgery, Jieyang People's Hospital , Jieyang, China
                [2] 2Department of Cardiology, Jieyang People's Hospital , Jieyang, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Luke Brewster, Emory University, United States

                Reviewed by: Shayna Brathwaite, Morehouse School of Medicine, United States; Donna Shu-Han Lin, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan; Arash Harzand, Emory University, United States

                *Correspondence: Shangbo Xu xusb2020@ 123456126.com

                This article was submitted to Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Prevention, a section of the journal Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine

                Article
                10.3389/fcvm.2022.868370
                9039520
                35498034
                fb87bd60-4204-4a4b-a9e7-131d45c3de63
                Copyright © 2022 Lin, Chen, Jiang, Li and Xu.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 02 February 2022
                : 22 March 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 42, Pages: 13, Words: 7302
                Categories
                Cardiovascular Medicine
                Original Research

                global health,peripheral artery disease,epidemiology,incidence,risk factor

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