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      ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Caliciviridae


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          The family Caliciviridae includes viruses with single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes of 7.4–8.3 kb. The most clinically important representatives are human noroviruses, which are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Virions are non-enveloped with icosahedral symmetry. Members of seven genera infect mammals ( Lagovirus, Norovirus, Nebovirus, Recovirus, Sapovirus, Valovirus and Vesivirus), members of two genera infect birds ( Bavovirus and Nacovirus), and members of two genera infect fish ( Minovirus and Salovirus). This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Caliciviridae, which is available at ictv.global/report/caliciviridae.

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          The evolutionary history of vertebrate RNA viruses

          Our understanding of the diversity and evolution of vertebrate RNA viruses is largely limited to those found in mammalian and avian hosts and associated with overt disease. Here, using a large-scale meta-transcriptomic approach, we discover 214 vertebrate-associated viruses in reptiles, amphibians, lungfish, ray-finned fish, cartilaginous fish and jawless fish. The newly discovered viruses appear in every family or genus of RNA virus associated with vertebrate infection, including those containing human pathogens such as influenza virus, the Arenaviridae and Filoviridae families, and have branching orders that broadly reflected the phylogenetic history of their hosts. We establish a long evolutionary history for most groups of vertebrate RNA virus, and support this by evaluating evolutionary timescales using dated orthologous endogenous virus elements. We also identify new vertebrate-specific RNA viruses and genome architectures, and re-evaluate the evolution of vector-borne RNA viruses. In summary, this study reveals diverse virus-host associations across the entire evolutionary history of the vertebrates.
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            Advances in norovirus biology.

            Human noroviruses are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide and can chronically infect immunocompromised patients. Efforts to develop effective vaccines and antivirals have been hindered by the uncultivable nature and extreme genetic diversity of human noroviruses. Although they remain a particularly challenging pathogen to study, recent advances in norovirus animal models and in vitro cultivation systems have led to an increased understanding of norovirus molecular biology and replication, pathogenesis, cell tropism, and innate and adaptive immunity. Furthermore, clinical trials of vaccines consisting of nonreplicating virus-like particles have shown promise. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and discuss controversies in the field, which is rapidly progressing toward generation of antiviral agents and increasingly effective vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              X-ray crystallographic structure of the Norwalk virus capsid.

              Norwalk virus, a noncultivatable human calicivirus, is the major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis in humans. The first x-ray structure of a calicivirus capsid, which consists of 180 copies of a single protein, has been determined by phase extension from a low-resolution electron microscopy structure. The capsid protein has a protruding (P) domain connected by a flexible hinge to a shell (S) domain that has a classical eight-stranded beta-sandwich motif. The structure of the P domain is unlike that of any other viral protein with a subdomain exhibiting a fold similar to that of the second domain in the eukaryotic translation elongation factor-Tu. This subdomain, located at the exterior of the capsid, has the largest sequence variation among Norwalk-like human caliciviruses and is likely to contain the determinants of strain specificity and cell binding.

                Author and article information

                J Gen Virol
                J. Gen. Virol
                The Journal of General Virology
                Microbiology Society
                November 2019
                1 October 2019
                : 100
                : 11
                : 1469-1470
                [ 1] departmentDivision of Viral Diseases , National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Atlanta, GA, USA
                [ 2] Baylor College of Medicine , Houston, TX, USA
                [ 3] CIBIO/InBio – Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Universidade do Porto , Campus de Vairão, 4485-661, Vairão, Portugal
                [ 4] Caliciviruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, MD, USA
                [ 5] departmentLaboratory of Viral infection I, Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences Graduate School of Infection Control Sciences , Kitasato University , Tokyo, Japan
                [ 6] The Pirbright Institute , Pirbright, Surrey, UK
                [ 7] Université de Montréal , Montréal, Canada
                [ 8] departmentDepartment of Veterinary Medicine , University Aldo Moro of Bari , Valenzano, Bari, Italy
                [ 9] Centre for Infectious Diseases Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) , Bilthoven, The Netherlands
                [ 10] departmentSchool of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Faculty of Science , University of New South Wales , Sydney, Australia
                Author notes
                *Correspondence: Jan Vinjé, jvinje@ 123456cdc.gov

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 04 September 2019
                : 05 September 2019
                Funded by: Wellcome Trust (GB)
                Award ID: WT108418AIA
                Award Recipient : ICTV Consortium
                ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile
                Positive-strand RNA Viruses

                Microbiology & Virology
                ictv report,taxonomy,caliciviridae,norovirus
                Microbiology & Virology
                ictv report, taxonomy, caliciviridae, norovirus


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