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      Niveles urinarios de 1-Hidroxipireno en trabajadores expuestos a Hidrocarburos Aromáticos Policíclicos en la Industria de la Goma Translated title: Urinary levels of 1-hydroxypyrene in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Rubber Industry

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          Abstract

          El 1-Hidroxipireno es un metabolito del pireno, considerado como un biomarcador de exposición a Hidrocarburos PolicíclicosAromáticos (HPA), compuestos asociados con cáncer en el hombre; y la industria de la goma constituye una fuente de emisión importante de esos compuestos. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la asociación entre 1-Hidroxipireno con edad, antigüedad en la empresa, uso de equipo de protección personal, hábito alcohólico y tabáquico en 30 trabajadores de una industria de la goma del estado Carabobo. La investigación fue descriptiva de corte transversal, los sujetos fueron divididos en cuatro grupos de acuerdo al puesto de trabajo con potencial exposición a HPA: GI, área de pesada y mezcla de materia prima; GII, producción; GIII, mantenimiento y GIV, área administrativa. Se utilizó un cuestionario para conocer las variables independientes y se recolectaron muestras de orina puntual para medir el 1-Hidroxipireno, por Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión con detección por fluorescencia. El valor promedio total de 1-Hidroxipireno de los cuatro grupos fue de 1,28 μg/g de creatinina y 1,71 y 0,89 μg/g de creatinina en fumadores y no fumadores, respectivamente. En el grupo II de mayor exposición a HPA se encontró un valor de 1,96 μg/g de creatinina superior al promedio total, pero no se halló asociación estadísticamente significativa entre 1-hidroxipireno y el resto de las variables en los trabajadores investigados. Los resultados demuestran la potencial utilidad del 1-Hidroxipireno como biomarcador de exposición a HPA.

          Translated abstract

          1-hydroxypyrene is a metabolite of pyrene, and considered to be a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), compounds associated with human carcinogenicity. The rubber industry is considered an important source of emissions of these compounds. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between 1-hydroxypyrene and age, seniority, use of personal protective equipment, and alcoholic and smoking habits in 30 workers at a rubber plant in the State of Carabobo (Venezuela). The study design was cross-sectional; subjects were divided in four groups according to potential exposure to PAH: GI, weighing and mixing of raw materials; GII, production; GIII, maintenance and GIV, administrative area. A questionnaire was used to gather data on independent variables, and spot urine samples were obtained and assayed for 1-hydroxypyrene, by high pressure liquid chromatography with detection by fluorescence. The overall mean concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene for the four groups was 1.28 μg/g of creatinine and 1.71 and 0.89 μg/ g of creatinine in smokers and non-smokers, respectively. In GII, the value was 1.96 μg/g of creatinine, higher than the overall mean value, but no statistically significant associations were found between 1-hydroxypyrene and the remaining study variables. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of exposure to PAH.

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          Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in environmental and occupational studies--a review.

          A total of 132 studies were identified, of which 25 studies addressed environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the general population. Of these 9 studies included children. Of 101 studies among workers in various occupations, 32 studies were in petrochemical industries, 29 studies in foundries, 14 studies in asphalt work, 21 studies working in urban air, 6 studies in combustion, 3 studies in soil remediation, and 2 studies in printing. Environmental and occupational studies were identified through an extensive search of the PubMed database up to November 2006. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of studies using urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) as a biomarker of environmental and occupational exposure to PAHs. Hereby, we aim to support the current validation of 1-HP by summarizing the evidence of specific PAH exposure and1-HP associations in humans. Urine from more than 7000 children from 8 countries and 3400 adults from 9 countries were included in the 25 studies assessing environmental exposure to PAH. Among the occupational studies 7500 men and women gave urine samples to assess occupational PAH exposure. When measuring biomarkers in urine, volume (and time) or concentrations of creatinine are often used to standardize for diuresis. To be able to compare the included studies we recalculated the given concentrations to mumol 1-HP/mol creatinine. In conclusion, the highest concentrations of urinary 1-HP are found among workers in petrochemical industries among coke-oven workers. Occupational PAH exposure was the major factor determining high urinary concentration of 1-HP. The highest concentrations were observed among workers in the petrochemical industry at work places in Taiwan and China. To evaluate environmental and low-level occupational exposure to PAH it is crucial to provide knowledge on intra- and inter-individual variation in the evaluation of 1-HP. The highest contribution originates from environmental tobacco smoke, but also different country, cooking culture, and behavior influences urinary of 1-HP.
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            Benchmark guideline for urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as biomarker of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

            Many individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are genotoxic carcinogens. One of the parent PAH, pyrene, undergoes simple metabolism to 1-hydroxypyrene. 1-Hydroxypyrene and its glucuronide are excreted in urine. Biological monitoring of exposure to PAH has rapidly been expanded since urinary 1-hydroxypyrene was suggested as a biological index of dose of pyrene. Since pyrene is always present in PAH mixtures, the biological indicator is not only an indicator of uptake of pyrene, but also an indirect indicator of all PAH. At present, several hundreds of papers reporting on urinary concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene in workers' urine are available. It appeared that urinary 1-hydroxypyrene is a sound biomarker and that the analytical method is robust and non-laborious. Since epidemiological studies of cancer mortality related to long-term average urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration are lacking, a sound health-based limit value of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine cannot be set as yet. Since PAH exposure is widespread and the dermal uptake is substantial among exposed workers, an attempt was made to propose a three-level benchmark guideline for urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. The reference value as a 95th percentile in non-occupational exposed controls is 0.24 micromol mol(-1) creatinine and 0.76 micromol mol(-1) creatinine for non-smokers and smokers, respectively. This is the first level of the benchmark guideline. A no-biological-effect-level of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of exposed workers was found at 1.4 micromol mol(-1) creatinine. It is the lowest reported level at which no genotoxic effects were found and therefore the estimate for the second level of the benchmark guideline. In two types of industry, coke ovens and primary aluminium production, the regression of airborne PAH concentrations and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in exposed workers has been studied. The correlation of airborne concentrations and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of workers from coke ovens and in the primary aluminium industry was used to estimate the level of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene equal to the present occupational exposure limit (OEL) of PAH. The concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine equal to the OEL is 2.3 micromol mol(-1) creatinine and 4.9 micromol mol(-1) creatinine, respectively, in these two industries. These latter values present the third level of the benchmark guideline.
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              Polynuclear aromatic compounds, Part 1, Chemical, environmental and experimental data.

              (1983)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                st
                Salud de los Trabajadores
                Salud de los Trabajadores
                Universidad de Carabobo (Maracay, Aragua, Venezuela )
                1315-0138
                December 2013
                : 21
                : 2
                : 141-149
                Affiliations
                [02] orgnameUniversidad de Carabobo orgdiv1Escuela de Ciencias Biomédicas y Tecnológicas
                [01] orgnameUniversidad de Carabobo orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud orgdiv2Unidad de Investigaciones en Toxicología Molecular
                Article
                S1315-01382013000200004 S1315-0138(13)02100204
                fb917e65-81c1-4916-b65c-9228344ee018

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                : 29 March 2012
                : 16 January 2013
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 32, Pages: 9
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Categories
                Artículos

                products,biological monitoring,pyrene,materials,monitoreo biológico,pirenos,sustancias,productos

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