The urinary volume (U.V.), Na excretion (UNaV) and K excretion (UKV) have been reported to show a circadian rhythm in man, but the mechanism of this rhythm has not been made clear. To investigate how atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and endogenous digitalis-like substance (DLS) participate in the circadian change in urinary electrolyte, the circadian changes in ANP and DLS (digoxin-like immunoactivity: DLI, Na-K-ATPase inhibitor: ATPI, ouabain binding inhibitor to Na-K-ATPase: OBI) were evaluated in 5 normal man. ANP, DLI and OBI showed no significant correlation with urinary electrolyte excretion, but there was a significant positive correlation between plasma ATPI and urinary Na excretion. From these results it is suggested that circulating Na-K-ATPase inhibitor (plasma ATPI) may be involved in the regulation of the circadian rhythm of urinary Na excretion.