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      Relevance of anaerobic bacteremia in adult patients: A never-ending story?

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          Abstract

          Obligate anaerobic bacteria are considered important constituents of the microbiota of humans; in addition, they are also important etiological agents in some focal or invasive infections and bacteremia with a high level of mortality. Conflicting data have accumulated over the last decades regarding the extent in which these pathogens play an intrinsic role in bloodstream infections. Clinical characteristics of anaerobic bloodstream infections do not differ from bacteremia caused by other pathogens, but due to their longer generation time and rigorous growth requirements, it usually takes longer to establish the etiological diagnosis. The introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has represented a technological revolution in microbiological diagnostics, which has allowed for the fast, accurate and reliable identification of anaerobic bacteria at a low sample cost. The purpose of this review article is to summarize the currently available literature data on the prevalence of anaerobic bacteremia in adults for physicians and clinical microbiologists and to shed some light on the complexity of this topic nowadays.

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          Most cited references 111

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          MALDI-TOF MS for the diagnosis of infectious diseases.

           Robin Patel (2015)
          First introduced into clinical microbiology laboratories in Europe, MALDI-TOF MS is being rapidly embraced by laboratories around the globe. Although it has multiple applications, its widespread adoption in clinical microbiology relates to its use as an inexpensive, easy, fast, and accurate method for identification of grown bacteria and fungi based on automated analysis of the mass distribution of bacterial proteins.
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            Emerging roles of the microbiome in cancer.

            Gene-environment interactions underlie cancer susceptibility and progression. Yet, we still have limited knowledge of which environmental factors are important and how they function during tumorigenesis. In this respect, the microbial communities that inhabit our gastrointestinal tract and other body sites have been unappreciated until recently. However, our microbiota are environmental factors that we are exposed to continuously, and human microbiome studies have revealed significant differences in the relative abundance of certain microbes in cancer cases compared with controls. To characterize the function of microbiota in carcinogenesis, mouse models of cancer have been treated with antibiotics. They have also been maintained in a germfree state or have been colonized with specific bacteria in specialized (gnotobiotic) facilities. These studies demonstrate that microbiota can increase or decrease cancer susceptibility and progression by diverse mechanisms such as by modulating inflammation, influencing the genomic stability of host cells and producing metabolites that function as histone deacetylase inhibitors to epigenetically regulate host gene expression. One might consider microbiota as tractable environmental factors because they are highly quantifiable and relatively stable within an individual compared with our exposures to external agents. At the same time, however, diet can modulate the composition of microbial communities within our gut, and this supports the idea that probiotics and prebiotics can be effective chemoprevention strategies. The trajectory of where the current work is headed suggests that microbiota will continue to provide insight into the basic mechanisms of carcinogenesis and that microbiota will also become targets for therapeutic intervention.
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              Antianaerobic antimicrobials: spectrum and susceptibility testing.

              Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria recovered from selected cases can influence the choice of antimicrobial therapy. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has standardized many laboratory procedures, including anaerobic susceptibility testing (AST), and has published documents for AST. The standardization of testing methods by the CLSI allows comparisons of resistance trends among various laboratories. Susceptibility testing should be performed on organisms recovered from sterile body sites, those that are isolated in pure culture, or those that are clinically important and have variable or unique susceptibility patterns. Organisms that should be considered for individual isolate testing include highly virulent pathogens for which susceptibility cannot be predicted, such as Bacteroides, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Clostridium spp.; Bilophila wadsworthia; and Sutterella wadsworthensis. This review describes the current methods for AST in research and reference laboratories. These methods include the use of agar dilution, broth microdilution, Etest, and the spiral gradient endpoint system. The antimicrobials potentially effective against anaerobic bacteria include beta-lactams, combinations of beta-lactams and beta-lactamase inhibitors, metronidazole, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, macrolides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones. The spectrum of efficacy, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and resistance patterns against these agents are described.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                05 June 2020
                18 July 2020
                : 10
                : 2
                : 64-75
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Pharmacodynamics and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Szeged , Eötvös utca 6., Szeged, 6720, Hungary
                [2 ] Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged , Dóm tér 10., Szeged, 6720, Hungary
                [3 ] Institute for Translational Medicine, Medical School, University of Pécs , Szigeti út 12., Pécs, 7624, Hungary
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author. Tel.: +36 62 341 330. E-mail: mariopharma92@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.1556/1886.2020.00009
                7391379
                32590337
                © 2020, The Authors

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated. (SID_1)

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 119, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Review Paper

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