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      CD1a presentation of endogenous antigens by group 2 innate lymphoid cells

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          Abstract

          Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are effectors of barrier immunity, with roles in infection, wound healing, and allergy. A proportion of ILC2 express MHCII (major histocompatibility complex II) and are capable of presenting peptide antigens to T cells and amplifying the subsequent adaptive immune response. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of CD1a-reactive T cells in allergy and infection, activated by the presentation of endogenous neolipid antigens and bacterial components. Using a human skin challenge model, we unexpectedly show that human skin–derived ILC2 can express CD1a and are capable of presenting endogenous antigens to T cells. CD1a expression is up-regulated by TSLP (thymic stromal lymphopoietin) at levels observed in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis, and the response is dependent on PLA2G4A. Furthermore, this pathway is used to sense Staphylococcus aureus by promoting Toll-like receptor–dependent CD1a-reactive T cell responses to endogenous ligands. These findings define a previously unrecognized role for ILC2 in lipid surveillance and identify shared pathways of CD1a- and PLA2G4A-dependent ILC2 inflammation amenable to therapeutic intervention.

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          featureCounts: An efficient general-purpose program for assigning sequence reads to genomic features

          , , (2013)
          Next-generation sequencing technologies generate millions of short sequence reads, which are usually aligned to a reference genome. In many applications, the key information required for downstream analysis is the number of reads mapping to each genomic feature, for example to each exon or each gene. The process of counting reads is called read summarization. Read summarization is required for a great variety of genomic analyses but has so far received relatively little attention in the literature. We present featureCounts, a read summarization program suitable for counting reads generated from either RNA or genomic DNA sequencing experiments. featureCounts implements highly efficient chromosome hashing and feature blocking techniques. It is considerably faster than existing methods (by an order of magnitude for gene-level summarization) and requires far less computer memory. It works with either single or paired-end reads and provides a wide range of options appropriate for different sequencing applications. featureCounts is available under GNU General Public License as part of the Subread (http://subread.sourceforge.net) or Rsubread (http://www.bioconductor.org) software packages.
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            Human IL-25- and IL-33-responsive type 2 innate lymphoid cells are defined by expression of CRTH2 and CD161.

            Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are emerging as a family of effectors and regulators of innate immunity and tissue remodeling. Interleukin 22 (IL-22)- and IL-17-producing ILCs, which depend on the transcription factor RORγt, express CD127 (IL-7 receptor α-chain) and the natural killer cell marker CD161. Here we describe another lineage-negative CD127(+)CD161(+) ILC population found in humans that expressed the chemoattractant receptor CRTH2. These cells responded in vitro to IL-2 plus IL-25 and IL-33 by producing IL-13. CRTH2(+) ILCs were present in fetal and adult lung and gut. In fetal gut, these cells expressed IL-13 but not IL-17 or IL-22. There was enrichment for CRTH2(+) ILCs in nasal polyps of chronic rhinosinusitis, a typical type 2 inflammatory disease. Our data identify a unique type of human ILC that provides an innate source of T helper type 2 (T(H)2) cytokines.
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              IL-33-dependent type 2 inflammation during rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations in vivo.

              Rhinoviruses are the major cause of asthma exacerbations; however, its underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the epithelial cell-derived cytokine IL-33 plays a central role in exacerbation pathogenesis through augmentation of type 2 inflammation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science Immunology
                Sci. Immunol.
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                2470-9468
                December 22 2017
                December 22 2017
                : 2
                : 18
                : eaan5918
                Article
                10.1126/sciimmunol.aan5918
                5826589
                29273672
                fbac82c3-a062-4cee-985c-e196cdd1500d
                © 2017

                http://www.sciencemag.org/about/science-licenses-journal-article-reuse

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