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      Prevalence of Chronic Pain, Treatments, Perception, and Interference on Life Activities: Brazilian Population-Based Survey

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          Abstract

          Background and Objectives

          Chronic pain affects between 30% and 50% of the world population. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in Brazil, describe and compare differences between pain types and characteristics, and identify the types of therapies adopted and the impact of pain on daily life.

          Methods

          Cross-sectional study of a population-based survey with randomized sample from a private database. The interviews were conducted by phone. 78% of the respondents aged 18 years or more agreed to be interviewed, for a total of 723 respondents distributed throughout the country. Independent variables were demographic data, pain and treatment characteristics, and impact of pain on daily life. Comparative and associative statistical analyses were conducted to select variables for nonhierarchical logistic regression.

          Results

          Chronic pain prevalence was 39% and mean age was 41 years with predominance of females (56%). We found higher prevalence of chronic pain in the Southern and Southeastern regions. Pain treatment was not specific to gender. Dissatisfaction with chronic pain management was reported by 49% of participants.

          Conclusion

          39% of interviewed participants reported chronic pain, with prevalence of females. Gender-associated differences were found in intensity perception and interference of pain on daily life activities.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder: mutual maintenance?

          Common sequelae following a traumatic event include chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Over the last decade, the literature relating to PTSD has become progressively more sophisticated, resulting in well-supported theories and treatments for sufferers. Equivalent research relating to chronic pain has more recently gathered momentum. However, to date there has been minimal attention devoted to the concurrence of the two disorders, even though high comorbidity has been noted. This review begins by briefly summarizing the literature relating to the two disorders in terms of symptoms, prevalence and comorbidity. It explicates the major psychological theories of chronic pain and PTSD and reviews the evidence relating what factors maintain the disorders. A number of pathways by which chronic pain and PTSD may be mutually maintaining are highlighted. We conclude that chronic pain and PTSD are mutually maintaining conditions and that there are several pathways by which both disorders may be involved in the escalation of symptoms and distress following trauma. Treatment implications are considered, as are issues for future research.
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            Persistent Pain and Well-being

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              Prevalence of rheumatic diseases in Brazil: a study using the COPCORD approach.

              To estimate the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in residents of Montes Claros, Brazil, of both sexes, aged above 16 years, using the COPCORD questionnaire. This was a cross-sectional study of 3038 people; the sample was probabilistic, by conglomerates, multiple stages, within homogeneous strata, the sampling unit being the domicile. The COPCORD questionnaire was used for all subjects, and a rheumatologist evaluated those patients who presented pain and/or functional disability. Laboratory tests and radiographs of small and large joints were done in some patients to confirm the diagnosis. Subjects were identified by socioeconomic level in quintiles A, B, C, D, and E, A being the highest. Two hundred nineteen patients were identified with rheumatic diseases, mean age 37 (SD 27) years, with female predominance. Seventy-seven (35.2%) were unemployed and socioeconomic level D was the most prevalent. Of all patients with rheumatic disease, osteoarthritis (OA) was observed in 126 (57.5%) patients, fibromyalgia (FM) in 76 (34.7%), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 14 (6.4%), and lupus in 3 (1.4%). Women were predominant in all diseases except OA. The mean (SD) age was 56 (12.7) years for OA, 43.2 (9.1) for FM, 53.4 (13.9) for RA, and 40 (14) for lupus. The prevalence of rheumatic diseases evaluated by the COPCORD questionnaire was 4.14% for OA, 2.5% for FM, 0.46% for RA, and 0.098% for lupus.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Pain Res Manag
                Pain Res Manag
                PRM
                Pain Research & Management
                Hindawi
                1203-6765
                1918-1523
                2017
                26 September 2017
                : 2017
                Affiliations
                1Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Hospital Universitário, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil
                2Sociedade Brasileira para o Estudo da Dor, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
                3Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
                4Equipe de Controle da Dor Disciplina de Anestesiologia Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Laboratório Sujeito e Corpo (SUCOR) do Instituto de Psicologia da USP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
                5Escola de Cancerologia Celestino Bourroul da Fundação Antônio Prudente de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
                6Serviço de Anestesiologia e Clinica de Dor Oncológica do GRUPO COI, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
                7Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Centro de Treinamento de Anestesiologia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Parisa Gazerani

                Article
                10.1155/2017/4643830
                5634600
                Copyright © 2017 Juliana Barcellos de Souza et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Sociedade Brasileira para o Estudo da Dor
                Categories
                Research Article

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