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      Beneficial Effects of Natural Bioactive Compounds from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on Obesity


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          Obesity is a condition associated with the accumulation of excess fat in the body, energy imbalance, lipogenesis, etc., which increases adipose tissue mass through adipogenesis and poses a health risk. Its prevalence has become an economic burden to the health care system and the world at large. One of the alternatives to tackling obesity involves the use of bioactive compounds. We critically examined the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) on various parameters associated with the development of obesity such as; the effect of HSE on body weight, the effect of HSE on lipid accumulation, cholesterol metabolism and plasma parameters, the inhibitory effect of HSE on pancreatic lipase, and the effect of HSE on adipocyte differentiation/adipogenesis. This review has gathered reports on the various anti-obesity effects of H. sabdariffa bioactive compounds in cell and animal models, as well as in humans. Available toxicology information on the consumption of H. sabdariffa revealed that its toxicity is dose-dependent and may cause an adverse effect when administered over a long period of time. Reports have shown that H. sabdariffa derived bioactive compounds are potent in the treatment of obesity with an evident reduction in body weight, inhibition of lipid accumulation and suppression of adipogenesis through the PPARγ pathway and other transcriptional factors.

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          Most cited references78

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          Anthocyanins and their role in cancer prevention.

          Anthocyanins are the most abundant flavonoid constituents of fruits and vegetables. The conjugated bonds in their structures, which absorb light at about 500 nm, are the basis for the bright red, blue and purple colors of fruits and vegetables, as well as the autumn foliage of deciduous trees. The daily intake of anthocyanins in residents of the United States is estimated to be about 200 mg or about 9-fold higher than that of other dietary flavonoids. In this review, we summarize the latest developments on the anti-carcinogenic activities of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts in cell culture models and in animal model tumor systems, and discuss their molecular mechanisms of action. We also suggest reasons for the apparent lack of correlation between the effectiveness of anthocyanins in laboratory model systems and in humans as evidenced by epidemiological studies. Future studies aimed at enhancing the absorption of anthocyanins and/or their metabolites are likely to be necessary for their ultimate use for chemoprevention of human cancer.
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            Quercetin ameliorates metabolic syndrome and improves the inflammatory status in obese Zucker rats.

            The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of chronic administration of high doses of quercetin on metabolic syndrome abnormalities, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. For this purpose, obese Zucker rats and their lean littermates were used. The rats received a daily dose of quercetin (2 or 10 mg/kg of body weight) or vehicle for 10 weeks. Body weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were recorded weekly. At the end of the treatment, plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, free-fatty acids (FFAs), glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and nitrate plus nitrite (NOx) were determined. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression were analyzed in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). The raised SBP and high plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, FFA, and insulin found in obese Zucker rats were reduced in obese rats that received either of the doses of quercetin assayed. The higher dose also improved the inflammatory status peculiar to this model, as it increased the plasma concentration of adiponectin, reduced NOx levels in plasma, and lowered VAT TNF-alpha production in obese Zucker rats. Furthermore, chronic intake of the higher dose of quercetin enhanced VAT eNOS expression among obese Zucker rats, whereas it downregulated VAT iNOS expression. In conclusion, both doses of quercetin improved dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperinsulinemia in obese Zucker rats, but only the high dose produced antiinflammatory effects in VAT together with a reduction in body weight gain.
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              Hibiscus sabdariffa L. - a phytochemical and pharmacological review.

              Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs, roselle; Malvaceae) has been used traditionally as a food, in herbal drinks, in hot and cold beverages, as a flavouring agent in the food industry and as a herbal medicine. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as some clinical trials provide some evidence mostly for phytochemically poorly characterised Hs extracts. Extracts showed antibacterial, anti-oxidant, nephro- and hepato-protective, renal/diuretic effect, effects on lipid metabolism (anti-cholesterol), anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive effects among others. This might be linked to strong antioxidant activities, inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE), and direct vaso-relaxant effect or calcium channel modulation. Phenolic acids (esp. protocatechuic acid), organic acid (hydroxycitric acid and hibiscus acid) and anthocyanins (delphinidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside) are likely to contribute to the reported effects. More well designed controlled clinical trials are needed which use phytochemically characterised preparations. Hs has an excellent safety and tolerability record.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                08 January 2019
                January 2019
                : 24
                : 1
                : 210
                [1 ]Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea; hoyeendahmolar@ 123456gmail.com (O.V.O.); lsg100479@ 123456naver.com (S.G.L.)
                [2 ]Institute of Agricultural Science & Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: namjo@ 123456knu.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-53-950-7760
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 29 November 2018
                : 08 January 2019

                adipogenesis,bioactive compounds,fat accumulation,hibiscus sabdariffa,lipase inhibition


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