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      Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) extract as a phytogenic additive for sheep finished on pasture in the semiarid region

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT Phytogenic additives are organic molecules that also improve ruminal fermentation, turning the supplemented individuals into more productive animals, without damage the population welfare. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora [Sw.] DC.) extract as phytogenic additive for sheep finished on pasture in the Brazilian Northeast semiarid region. Twenty-four intact lambs (Santa Ines × Dorper F1 crossbred) were used, with an initial body weight of 23.00 ± 1.83 kg. The experiment was carried out in a complete randomized design with four treatments and six replicates. Treatments consisted of four diets: Pasture and no supplementation; grazing pasture and phytogenic additive; pasture, supplementation with Tifton 85 hay, and concentrate; and pasture, phytogenic additive, and supplementation with Tifton 85 hay and concentrate. Prior to supplementation, animals received the phytogenic additive according to treatment. There were nonsignificant differences for nutrient intake and behavior patterns (P > 0.05). However, additive intake derived from mesquite provided an increase (P < 0.05) in digestibility (14.40% total digestible nutrients), N balance (27.12% retained N:ingested N) and performance (8.82% final body weight, 21.81% total weight gain, and 30.81% average daily gain) compared to animals consuming only pasture in rainy period. Thus, the use of mesquite extract as phytogenic additive is recommended for sheep finished on pasture in the Brazilian semiarid region.

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          Exploitation of dietary tannins to improve rumen metabolism and ruminant nutrition.

          Tannins (hydrolysable and condensed tannin) are polyphenolic polymers of relatively high molecular weight with the capacity to form complexes mainly with proteins due to the presence of a large number of phenolic hydroxyl groups. They are widely distributed in nutritionally important forage trees, shrubs and legumes, cereals and grains, which are considered as anti-nutritional compounds due to their adverse effects on intake and animal performance. However, tannins have been recognised to modulate rumen fermentation favourably such as reducing protein degradation in the rumen, prevention of bloat, inhibition of methanogenesis and increasing conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in ruminant-derived foods. The inclusion of tannins in diets has been shown to improve body weight and wool growth, milk yields and reproductive performance. However, the beneficial effects on rumen modulation and animal performance have not been consistently observed. This review discusses the effects of tannins on nitrogen metabolism in the rumen and intestine, and microbial populations (bacteria, protozoa, fungi and archaea), metabolism of tannins, microbial tolerance mechanisms to tannins, inhibition of methanogenesis, ruminal biohydrogenation processes and performance of animals. The discrepancies of responses of tannins among different studies are attributed to the different chemical structures (degree of polymerisation, procyanidins to propdelphinidins, stereochemistry and C-C bonding) and concentrations of tannins, and type of diets. An establishment of structure-activity relationship would be required to explain differences among studies and obtain consistent beneficial tannin effects. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.
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            Determination of extractable and bound condensed tannin concentrations in forage plants, protein concentrate meals and cereal grains

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              Elicitation of secondary metabolism in actinomycetes.

              Genomic sequence data have revealed the presence of a large fraction of putatively silent biosynthetic gene clusters in the genomes of actinomycetes that encode for secondary metabolites, which are not detected under standard fermentation conditions. This review focuses on the effects of biological (co-cultivation), chemical, as well as molecular elicitation on secondary metabolism in actinomycetes. Our review covers the literature until June 2014 and exemplifies the diversity of natural products that have been recovered by such approaches from the phylum Actinobacteria.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                chiljar
                Chilean journal of agricultural research
                Chil. j. agric. res.
                Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA (Chillán, , Chile )
                0718-5839
                March 2021
                : 81
                : 1
                : 14-26
                Affiliations
                [5] Greenwood Florida orgnameUniversity of Florida orgdiv1Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) orgdiv2North Florida Research and Education Center Marianna United States
                [1] Garanhuns orgnameUniversidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco orgdiv1Unidade Acadêmica de Garanhuns Brazil
                [3] Serra Talhada orgnameUniversidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco orgdiv1Unidade Acadêmica de Serra Talhada Brazil
                [4] Sousa Paraíba orgnameInstituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia da Paraíba Brazil
                [2] Recife Pernambuco orgnameUniversidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco orgdiv1Departamento de Zootecnia Brazil
                Article
                S0718-58392021000100014 S0718-5839(21)08100100014
                fbbf4358-2e1a-475f-81d2-5b31c9d48734

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 46, Pages: 13
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                Categories
                RESEARCH

                tannins.,intake,digestibility of nutrients,caatinga,Bioactive compounds

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