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      Repeated Balloon Inflations Do Not Diminish ST Segment Elevation even though Coronary Collateral Recruitment Is Promoted in Pigs

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          Objective: Attempts to demonstrate preconditioning during repeated angioplasty balloon inflations (BIs) have not been universally successful. The main obstacle is that the first BI is unreliable, due to the variable degrees of occlusion by the deflated balloon. In the present study, we examined whether ST segment elevation decreases and evaluated its relation to collateral recruitment during repeated angioplasty BIs in the pig. Methods and Results: Twenty male pigs, 7 months old, under general anesthesia, underwent 3 repeated BIs of 120 s, with a 5-min interval between them, in the left anterior descending artery or the right coronary artery. A pressure wave wire was used for the measurement of coronary wedge pressure and to obtain the intracoronary ST segment elevation. Intracoronary ST segment elevation was 1.97 ± 0.76 mV during the 1st BI, 2.09 ± 0.82 mV during the 2nd BI and 1.84 ± 0.82 mV during the 3rd BI (p = n.s.). Coronary wedge pressure was 12 ± 6, 18 ± 18 and 20 ± 20 mm Hg (p < 0.05 vs. 1st BI) during the 3 BIs, respectively. Conclusion: Repeated BIs do not diminish ST segment elevation in the pig model, even though coronary collateral recruitment is promoted.

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          Is the development of myocardial tolerance to repeated ischemia in humans due to preconditioning or to collateral recruitment?

          The purpose of this study in patients with quantitatively determined, poorly developed coronary collaterals was to assess the contribution of ischemic as well as adenosine-induced preconditioning and of collateral recruitment to the development of tolerance against repetitive myocardial ischemia. The development of myocardial tolerance to repeated ischemia is nowadays interpreted to be due to biochemical adaptation (i.e., ischemic preconditioning). In 30 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, myocardial adaptation to ischemia was measured using intracoronary (i.c.) electrocardiographic (ECG) ST segment elevation changes obtained from a 0.014-in. (0.036 cm) pressure guidewire positioned distal to the stenosis during three subsequent 2-min balloon occlusions. Simultaneously, an i.c. pressure-derived collateral flow index (CFI, no unit) was determined as the ratio between distal occlusive minus central venous pressure divided by the mean aortic minus central venous pressure. The study patients were divided into two groups according to the pretreatment with i.c. adenosine (2.4 mg/min for 10 min starting 20 min before the first occlusion, n = 15) or with normal saline (control group, n = 15). Collateral flow index at the first occlusion was not different between the groups (0.15 +/- 0.10 in the adenosine group and 0.13 +/- 0.11 in the control group, p = NS), and it increased significantly and similarly to 0.20 +/- 0.14 and to 0.19 +/- 0.10, respectively (p < 0.01) during the third occlusion. The i.c. ECG ST elevation (normalized for the QRS amplitude) was not different between the two groups at the first occlusion (0.25 +/- 0.13 in the adenosine group, 0.25 +/- 0.19 in the control group). It decreased significantly during subsequent coronary occlusions to 0.20 +/- 0.15 and to 0.17 +/- 0.13, respectively. There was a correlation between the change in CFI (first to third occlusion; deltaCFI) and the respective ST elevation shift (deltaST): deltaST = -0.02 to 0.78 x deltaCFI; r = 0.54, p = 0.02. Even in patients with few coronary collaterals, the myocardial adaptation to repetitive ischemia is closely related to collateral recruitment. Pharmacologic preconditioning using a treatment with i.c. adenosine before angioplasty does not occur. The variable responses of ECG signs of ischemic adaptation to collateral channel opening suggest that ischemic preconditioning is a relevant factor in the development of ischemic tolerance.
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            Improved myocardial ischemic response and enhanced collateral circulation with long repetitive coronary occlusion during angioplasty: a prospective study.

            The goal of the study was to evaluate the progressive increase in ischemic threshold with multiple sequential transient coronary occlusions and to assess the role of the collateral circulation in adaptation to ischemia. It has been observed that the duration of balloon inflations during coronary angioplasty can be gradually prolonged during subsequent dilations with a reduction in patient symptoms and diminished ischemic electrocardiographic (ECG) changes. Although the mechanism has not been fully explained, recruitment of coronary collateral circulation induced by repeated coronary occlusion has been reported. The stimuli for recruitment and the natural history of coronary collateral circulation are not understood. Seventeen patients with isolated stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery and a normal left ventricle were enrolled. Angioplasty consisted of five successive prolonged inflations. Sequential changes in clinical, intracoronary ECG and left ventricular indexes of myocardial ischemia were examined. Coronary collateral channels were evaluated during balloon inflations by ipsilateral and contralateral injections of contrast medium and hemodynamically by occlusion pressure. An improved tolerance to myocardial ischemia with repetitive coronary occlusions was demonstrated by a significant reduction of angina, ST segment deviation, left ventricular filling pressure and less impairment of ejection fraction. Left ventricular wall motion abnormalities remained unchanged. Collateral angiographic grade did not change in 7 patients and increased in 10. This study confirms a progressive adaptation of myocardial ischemia to repetitive coronary occlusions and supports the concept that sequential episodes of myocardial ischemia are a stimulating factor for the recruitment of collateral channels in humans. These results also suggest that enhancement of recruitable collateral circulation might be an underlying mechanism of myocardial ischemic preconditioning.
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              Electrophysiological Characteristics of Repetitive Ischemic Preconditioning in the Pig Heart

               M Shattock (1996)

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                November 2007
                13 February 2007
                : 108
                : 4
                : 340-344
                aSecond Department of Cardiology, Hellenic Red Cross Hospital, bElpen Experimental Laboratory, cCardiovascular Research Institute, and dOnassis Cardiac Center, Athens, Greece
                99106 Cardiology 2007;108:340–344
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 15, Pages: 5
                Original Research


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