During sepsis toxins released from, e.g., bacteria induce reactions of various cascade systems that may cause progression of the patient into septic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, multiorgan dysfunction syndrome and subsequent death. The use of conventional treatments using antibiotics, fluid substitution, inotropic drugs, respiration aid and dialysis is not enough to reverse the serious prognosis. The addition of various other drugs such as antibodies against various cytokines and cytokine receptors, pentoxiphylline, immunoglobulins or high doses of steroids is usually without benefit for the prognosis of the patient. Another possibility to reduce the extent of toxins and other harmful compounds in the circulation is the use of apheresis (removal by technical devices). This can be done either in a nonselective way (plasma exchange, plasmapheresis) or more selectively using various adsorbers such as polymyxin B. The survival in studies varies between 50 and 80%. Besides the use of nonselective apheresis, the development of various selective adsorption techniques may be one approach to improve survival of these severely ill patients.