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      A preliminary study of painless and effective transdermal botulinum toxin A delivery by jet nebulization for treatment of primary hyperhidrosis

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          Hyperhidrosis is a chronic disease characterized by increased sweat production. Local injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) have been extensively used for treatment of primary hyperhidrosis (idiopathic). The current treatment for this condition involves several intradermal injections, resulting in poor patient compliance due to injection-related pain. Therefore, new protocols, including an improved anesthetic regimen, are required.


          We designed the present study to determine whether JetPeel™-3, a medical device used for transdermal delivery of drugs by jet nebulization, could be used to deliver lidocaine prior to the standard multiple BTX-A injections or deliver lidocaine together with BTX-A in order to determine the protocol giving better results in terms of procedure-related pain, sweating, and patient satisfaction in subjects affected by primary axillary, palmar or plantar hyperhidrosis.

          Materials and methods

          Twenty patients with a visual analog scale (VAS) sweating score ≥ 8 cm were randomized to receive lidocaine 2% (5 mL) delivered by JetPeel™-3 followed by multiple injections of BTX-A (100 units) or lidocaine 2% (5 mL) and BTX-A (50 units) delivered together by JetPeel™-3. Effect of treatment on sweating was measured by VAS (0= minimum sweating; 10= maximum sweating) at 3-month follow-up. Pain induced by the procedure was assessed by VAS (0= minimum pain; 10= maximum pain) immediately after the procedure. Patient satisfaction was assessed at 3-month follow-up using a 5-point scale (1= not at all satisfied; 2= not satisfied; 3= partially satisfied; 4= satisfied; 5= highly satisfied).


          Both treatment modalities reduced sweating at 3-month follow-up, if compared with baseline (all P<0.001). Delivery of lidocaine and BTX-A by JetPeel™-3 resulted in lower procedure-related pain and reduced sweating, if compared with lidocaine delivered by JetPeel™-3 followed by multiple BTX-A injections (all P<0.001). Patient satisfaction with the procedure was higher in the group receiving lidocaine and BTX-A treatment by JetPeel™-3, if compared with lidocaine delivered by JetPeel™-3 followed by multiple BTX-A injections ( P<0.001). No side effects were observed in both groups.


          Lidocaine and BTX-A can be safely delivered together by JetPeel™-3 to treat primary palmar, plantar and axillary hyperhidrosis, resulting in lower procedure-related pain, improved sweating and higher patient satisfaction, if compared with lidocaine delivered by JetPeel™-3 followed by standard BTX-A injection therapy. Our protocol delivering lidocaine and BTX-A together by JetPeel™-3 requires a reduced quantity of BTX-A, further supporting the use of the transdermal drug delivery by jet nebulization over standard injection therapy for treatment of primary hyperhidrosis.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of primary focal hyperhidrosis.

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            Botulinum toxin A for axillary hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).

            Treatment of primary focal hyperhidrosis is often unsatisfactory. Botulinum toxin A can stop excessive sweating by blocking the release of acetylcholine, which mediates sympathetic neurotransmission in the sweat glands. We conducted a multicenter trial of botulinum toxin A in 145 patients with axillary hyperhidrosis. The patients had rates of sweat production greater than 50 mg per minute and had had primary axillary hyperhidrosis that was unresponsive to topical therapy with aluminum chloride for more than one year. In each patient, botulinum toxin A (200 U) was injected into one axilla, and placebo was injected into the other in a randomized, double-blind manner. (The units of the botulinum toxin A preparation used in this study are not identical to those of other preparations.) Two weeks later, after the treatments were revealed, the axilla that had received placebo was injected with 100 U of botulinum toxin A. Changes in the rates of sweat production were measured by gravimetry. At base line, the mean (+/-SD) rate of sweat production was 192+/-136 mg per minute. Two weeks after the first injections the mean rate of sweat production in the axilla that received botulinum toxin A was 24+/-27 mg per minute, as compared with 144+/-113 mg per minute in the axilla that received placebo (P< 0.001). Injection of 100 U into the axilla that had been treated with placebo reduced the mean rate of sweat production in that axilla to 32+/-39 mg per minute (P<0.001). Twenty-four weeks after the injection of 100 U, the rates of sweat production (in the 136 patients in whom the rates were measured at that time) were still lower than base-line values, at 67+/-66 mg per minute in the axilla that received 200 U and 65+/-64 mg per minute in the axilla that received placebo and 100 U of the toxin. Treatment was well tolerated; 98 percent of the patients said they would recommend this therapy to others. Intradermal injection of botulinum toxin A is an effective and safe therapy for severe axillary hyperhidrosis.
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              Focal hyperhidrosis: diagnosis and management.

              Hyperhidrosis, a condition characterized by excessive sweating, can be generalized or focal. Generalized hyperhidrosis involves the entire body and is usually part of an underlying condition, most often an infectious, endocrine or neurologic disorder. Focal hyperhidrosis is idiopathic, occurring in otherwise healthy people. It affects 1 or more body areas, most often the palms, armpits, soles or face. Almost 3% of the general population, largely people aged between 25 and 64 years, experience hyperhidrosis. The condition carries a substantial psychological and social burden, since it interferes with daily activities. However, patients rarely seek a physician's help because many are unaware that they have a treatable medical disorder. Early detection and management of hyperhidrosis can significantly improve a patient's quality of life. There are various topical, systemic, surgical and nonsurgical treatments available with efficacy rates greater than 90%-95%.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                14 July 2014
                : 8
                : 931-935
                [1 ]School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
                [2 ]Poliambulatorio del Secondo Parere, Modena, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Surgery and Surgical Specialties, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia Medical School, Surgical Clinic, Modena, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Tommaso Iannitti, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Leeds, Mount Preston Street, Garstang building, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK, Tel +44 752 147 1447, Email tommaso.iannitti@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2014 Iannitti et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Ltd, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Ltd, provided the work is properly attributed.

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