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      Rodents as intermediate hosts of cestode parasites of mammalian carnivores and birds of prey in Poland, with the first data on the life-cycle of Mesocestoides melesi

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          Rodents constitute an important part of the diet of many carnivore species. This predator-prey food chain is exploited by helminth parasites, such as cestodes, whose larval stages develop in rodents and then mature to the adult stage in predators. The main aim of our study was to use molecular techniques for identification of cestode species recovered from both intermediate and definitive hosts, with a particular focus on the genus Mesocestoides.


          Larval cestodes were obtained during our long-term studies on rodent helminth communities in the Mazury Lake District in the north-east Poland in 2000–2018. Cestode larvae/cysts were collected from body cavities or internal organs (e.g. liver) during autopsies. Adult tapeworms were derived from nine red foxes, three Eurasian badgers and one Eurasian lynx. PCR amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were conducted employing three genetic markers: 18S rDNA, mitochondrial (mt) 12S rDNA and the mt cytochrome c oxydase subunit 1 ( cox1) gene fragment.


          Altogether 19 Mesocestoides samples were analyzed, including 13 adult tapeworms from definitive hosts and six larval samples from 4 bank voles and 2 yellow-necked mice. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three well-supported trees of similar topology. In each case the Mesocestoides samples formed two separate clades. All isolates from foxes, the lynx isolate and two isolates from rodents grouped with Mesocestoides litteratus. Four isolates from rodents and all three isolates from Eurasian badgers were resolved in a separate clade, most similar to North American M. vogae (syn. M. corti). Examination of fixed, stained adult specimens from Eurasian badgers revealed consistency with the morphology of Mesocestoides melesi. Therefore, this clade is likely to represent M. melesi, a species first described in 1985 from the Eurasian badger Meles meles. Molecular analysis allowed also the identification of Taenia crassiceps, Hydatigera kamiyai and Cladotaenia globifera among larvae derived from rodents.


          Molecular and phylogenetic analyses support the recognition of M. melesi as a valid species. Our data represent the first record of the larvae of this species in rodents. This is the first report on the occurrence of H. kamiyai in rodents from Poland.

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          A molecular phylogeny of the human schistosomes.

          Members of the genus Schistosoma are generally grouped on the basis of egg morphology, intermediate host specificity, and geographic origin. We have tested hypotheses based on these groupings by phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal (ITS2) and mitochondrial (COI) nucleotide sequences. Both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data strongly support "traditional" hypotheses that (a) members of the Schistosoma haematobium group form a monophyletic clade, (b) members of the S. mansoni group form a monophyletic clade, (c) S. japonicum and S. mekongi form a monophyletic group relative to other schistosomes, and (d) the African schistosomes form a clade to the exclusion of the two Asian species.
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            Molecular phylogeny of the genus Taenia (Cestoda: Taeniidae): proposals for the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 and the creation of a new genus Versteria.

            The cestode family Taeniidae generally consists of two valid genera, Taenia and Echinococcus. The genus Echinococcus is monophyletic due to a remarkable similarity in morphology, features of development and genetic makeup. By contrast, Taenia is a highly diverse group formerly made up of different genera. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest the paraphyly of Taenia. To clarify the genetic relationships among the representative members of Taenia, molecular phylogenies were constructed using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. The nuclear phylogenetic trees of 18S ribosomal DNA and concatenated exon regions of protein-coding genes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and DNA polymerase delta) demonstrated that both Taenia mustelae and a clade formed by Taenia parva, Taenia krepkogorski and Taenia taeniaeformis are only distantly related to the other members of Taenia. Similar topologies were recovered in mitochondrial genomic analyses using 12 complete protein-coding genes. A sister relationship between T. mustelae and Echinococcus spp. was supported, especially in protein-coding gene trees inferred from both nuclear and mitochondrial data sets. Based on these results, we propose the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 for T. parva, T. krepkogorski and T. taeniaeformis and the creation of a new genus, Versteria, for T. mustelae. Due to obvious morphological and ecological similarities, Taenia brachyacantha is also included in Versteria gen. nov., although molecular evidence is not available. Taenia taeniaeformis has been historically regarded as a single species but the present data clearly demonstrate that it consists of two cryptic species. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central (London )
                22 February 2020
                22 February 2020
                : 13
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 1290, GRID grid.12847.38, Department of Eco-Epidemiology of Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Biology, , University of Warsaw, ; Miecznikowa 1, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1958 0162, GRID grid.413454.3, Mammal Research Institute, , Polish Academy of Sciences, ; Stoczek 1c, 17-230 Białowieża, Poland
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 4669, GRID grid.410688.3, Department of Forest Phytopathology, Faculty of Forestry, , Poznań University of Life Sciences, ; Poznan, Poland
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 1290, GRID grid.12847.38, Department of Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Institute of Botany, Faculty of Biology, , University of Warsaw, Biological and Chemical Research Centre, ; Żwirki i Wigury 101, 02-089 Warsaw, Poland
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2370 4076, GRID grid.8585.0, Department of Tropical Parasitology, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, , University of Gdansk, ; Powstania Styczniowego 9B, 81-519 Gdynia, Poland
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2157 4669, GRID grid.410688.3, Department of Game Management and Forest Protection, Faculty of Forestry, , Poznań University of Life Sciences, ; Poznan, Poland
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8868, GRID grid.4563.4, School of Life Sciences, , University of Nottingham, ; University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD UK
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004281, Narodowe Centrum Nauki;
                Award ID: 2014/14/E/NZ7/00153
                Award ID: 2016/21/B/NZ8/02429
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Ministry of Science and Higher Education programme as "Regional Initiative Excellence"
                Award ID: 005/RID/2018/19
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                © The Author(s) 2020


                mesocestoides, hydatigera, taenia crassiceps, rodents, fox, badger, lynx


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