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      Direct inpatient costs and influencing factors for patients with rectal cancer with low anterior resection: a retrospective observational study at a three-tertiary hospital in Beijing, China

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          The aim of the study was to investigate the direct inpatient cost and analyse influencing factors for patients with rectal cancer with low anterior resection in Beijing, China.


          A retrospective observational study.


          The study was conducted at a three-tertiary oncology institution.


          A total of 448 patients who underwent low anterior resection and were diagnosed with rectal cancer from January 2015 to December 2016 at Peking University Cancer Hospital were retrospectively identified. Demographic, clinical and cost data were determined.


          The median inpatient cost was¥89 064, with a wide range (¥46 711–¥191 329) due to considerable differences in consumables. The material cost accounted for 52.19% and was the highest among all the cost components. Colostomy (OR 4.17; 95% CI 1.79 to 9.71), complications of hypertension (OR 5.30; 95% CI 1.94 to 14.42) and combined with other tumours (OR 2.92; 95% CI 1.12 to 7.60) were risk factors for higher cost, while clinical pathway (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.35), real-time settlement (OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.68) and combined with cardiovascular disease (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.52) were protective determinants.


          This approach is an effective way to relieve the economic burden of patients with cancer by promoting the clinical pathway, optimising the payment scheme and controlling the complication. Further research focused on the full-cost investigation in different stages of rectal cancer based on a longitudinal design is necessary.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Colorectal cancer: from prevention to personalized medicine.

          Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a very heterogeneous disease that is caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. CRC develops through a gradual accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes, leading to the transformation of normal colonic mucosa into invasive cancer. CRC is one of the most prevalent and incident cancers worldwide, as well as one of the most deadly. Approximately 1235108 people are diagnosed annually with CRC, and 609051 die from CRC annually. The World Health Organization estimates an increase of 77% in the number of newly diagnosed cases of CRC and an increase of 80% in deaths from CRC by 2030. The incidence of CRC can benefit from different strategies depending on its stage: health promotion through health education campaigns (when the disease is not yet present), the implementation of screening programs (for detection of the disease in its early stages), and the development of nearly personalized treatments according to both patient characteristics (age, sex) and the cancer itself (gene expression). Although there are different strategies for screening and although the number of such strategies is increasing due to the potential of emerging technologies in molecular marker application, not all strategies meet the criteria required for screening tests in population programs; the three most accepted tests are the fecal occult blood test (FOBT), colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. FOBT is the most used method for CRC screening worldwide and is also the primary choice in most population-based screening programs in Europe. Due to its non-invasive nature and low cost, it is one of the most accepted techniques by population. CRC is a very heterogeneous disease, and with a few exceptions (APC, p53, KRAS), most of the genes involved in CRC are observed in a small percentage of cases. The design of genetic and epigenetic marker panels that are able to provide maximum coverage in the diagnosis of colorectal neoplasia seems a reasonable strategy. In recent years, the use of DNA, RNA and protein markers in different biological samples has been explored as strategies for CRC diagnosis. Although there is not yet sufficient evidence to recommend the analysis of biomarkers such as DNA, RNA or proteins in the blood or stool, it is likely that given the quick progression of technology tools in molecular biology, increasingly sensitive and less expensive, these tools will gradually be employed in clinical practice and will likely be developed in mass.
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            Guidelines for pre-operative cardiac risk assessment and perioperative cardiac management in non-cardiac surgery.

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              Trends in Healthcare Expenditures Among US Adults With Hypertension: National Estimates, 2003–2014

              Background One in 3 US adults has high blood pressure, or hypertension. As prior projections suggest hypertension is the costliest of all cardiovascular diseases, it is important to define the current state of healthcare expenditures related to hypertension. Methods and Results We used a nationally representative database, the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, to calculate the estimated annual healthcare expenditure for patients with hypertension and to measure trends in expenditure longitudinally over a 12‐year period. A 2‐part model was used to estimate adjusted incremental expenditures for individuals with hypertension versus those without hypertension. Sex, race/ethnicity, education, insurance status, census region, income, marital status, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and year category were included as covariates. The 2003–2014 pooled data include a total sample of 224 920 adults, of whom 36.9% had hypertension. Unadjusted mean annual medical expenditure attributable to patients with hypertension was $9089. Relative to individuals without hypertension, individuals with hypertension had $1920 higher annual adjusted incremental expenditure, 2.5 times the inpatient cost, almost double the outpatient cost, and nearly triple the prescription medication expenditure. Based on the prevalence of hypertension in the United States, the estimated adjusted annual incremental cost is $131 billion per year higher for the hypertensive adult population compared with the nonhypertensive population. Conclusions Individuals with hypertension are estimated to face nearly $2000 higher annual healthcare expenditure compared with their nonhypertensive peers. This trend has been relatively stable over 12 years. Healthcare costs associated with hypertension account for about $131 billion. This warrants intense effort toward hypertension prevention and management.

                Author and article information

                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                18 December 2018
                : 8
                : 12
                [1 ] departmentDepartment of Medical Insurance , Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education) , Beijing, China
                [2 ] departmentDepartment of GI Cancer Center Surgery Unit III , Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education) , Beijing, China
                [3 ] departmentInstitute of Health Management and Education , Capital Medical University , Beijing, China
                [4 ] departmentDepartment of GI Cancer Center Surgery Unit I , Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education) , Beijing, China
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Jiahua Leng; lengybc@ 123456126.com
                © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

                This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                Health Economics
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                cost analysis, rectal cancer, influencing factor, china, low anterior resection


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