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      Stabilization of a Clayey Soil with Ladle Metallurgy Furnace Slag Fines

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          Abstract

          The research study described in this paper investigated the potential to use steel furnace slag (SFS) as a stabilizing additive for clayey soils. Even though SFS has limited applications in civil engineering infrastructure due to the formation of deleterious expansion in the presence of water, the free CaO and free MgO contents allow for the SFS to be a potentially suitable candidate for clayey soil stabilization and improvement. In this investigation, a kaolinite clay was stabilized with 10% and 15% ladle metallurgy furnace (LMF) slag fines by weight. This experimental study also included testing of the SFS mixtures with the activator calcium chloride (CaCl 2), which was hypothesized to accelerate the hydration of the dicalcium silicate phase in the SFS, but the results show that the addition of CaCl 2 was not found to be effective. Relative to the unmodified clay, the unconfined compressive strength increased by 67% and 91% when 10% and 15% LMF slag were utilized, respectively. Likewise, the dynamic modulus increased by 212% and 221% by adding 10% and 15% LMF slag, respectively. Specifically, the LMF slag fines are posited to primarily contribute to a mechanical rather than chemical stabilization mechanism. Overall, these findings suggest the effective utilization of SFS as a soil stabilization admixture to overcome problems associated with dispersive soils, but further research is required.

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          Most cited references 92

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          Lime stabilization of clay minerals and soils

           F.G. Bell (1996)
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            Products of steel slags an opportunity to save natural resources.

             H Motz,  J Geiseler (2001)
            In Germany, and in the most industrial countries, the use of blast furnace and steel slags as an aggregate for civil engineering, for metallurgical use and as fertiliser has a very long tradition. Since the introduction of the basic oxygen steel making furnace (BOF) process and the electric arc furnace (EAF) process the German steel industry started extensive research on the development of fields of application for BOF and EAF slags. These investigations have been mainly performed by Forschungsgemeinschaft Eisenhüttenschlacken e. V. (FEhS), the Research Association for blast furnace and steel slags. Today steel slags are well characterised and long-term experienced materials mainly used as aggregates for road construction (e.g. asphaltic or unbound layers), as armour-stones for hydraulic engineering constructions (e.g. stabilisation of shores), and as fertiliser for agriculture purposes. These multifarious fields of application could only be achieved because the steelworks influence the quality of slags by a careful selection of raw materials and a suitable process route. Furthermore, subsequent procedures like a treatment of the liquid slag, an appropriate heat treatment and a suitable processing have been developed to ensure that the quality of steel slags is always adequate for the end use. Depending on the respective field of application, the suitability of steel slags has to be proven by determining the technical properties, as well as the environmental compatibility. For this reason test methods have been developed to evaluate the technical properties especially the volume stability and the environmental behaviour. To evaluate the volume stability a suitable test (steam test) has been developed and the results from laboratory tests were compared with the behaviour of steel slags under practical conditions, e.g. in a road. To determine the environmental behaviour leaching tests have been developed. In the meanwhile most of these test methods are drafted or already accepted as a CEN standard and are used for a continuous quality control. Usually the suitability of steel slags is stated by fulfilling the requirements of national and/or international standards and regulations. Based on these standards and regulations in Germany in 1998 about 97% of the produced steel slags have been used as aggregates for road construction (e.g. as surface layer, road base and sub base for high trafficked roads), ways, earthworks, and armourstones for hydraulic structures. Consistent to the successful long-term experience not only products of steel slags but also products of blast furnace slags have been eliminated from the European Waste Catalogue and the European Shipment of Waste Regulation of the European Community, as well as from the lists of OECD for transfrontier movements by the decision of the OECD-Council from 21 September, 1995.
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              Steel Slag—Its Production, Processing, Characteristics, and Cementitious Properties

               Caijun Shi (2004)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Materials (Basel)
                Materials (Basel)
                materials
                Materials
                MDPI
                1996-1944
                24 September 2020
                October 2020
                : 13
                : 19
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Charles E. Via, Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 750 Drillfield Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA; ebenfanijo@ 123456vt.edu
                [2 ]Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 205 N. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA; singhvi3@ 123456illinois.edu (P.S.); tutumlue@ 123456illinois.edu (E.T.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: asbrand@ 123456vt.edu
                Article
                materials-13-04251
                10.3390/ma13194251
                7579171
                32987699
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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