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      Viral Infections and Incidence of Reactivations in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients

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          Abstract

          Background

          Viral infections remain a significant problem for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who undergo stem cell transplants (SCTs). These infections often result from the reactivation of latent viruses. However, our understanding of the risk of viral reactivation in CML patients who have not undergone SCT is limited, and there is a scarcity of data on this topic. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionized the treatment of CML as it is highly successful and has transformed the prognosis of patients with CML. However, TKI may be associated with an increased risk of infections.

          Summary

          We have performed a literature search for publications related to viral infections and their reactivations in patients with CML using PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for the period 2001–2022. The population consisted of patients over 18 years old with a diagnosis of CML and no history of bone marrow transplantation. In an analysis of 41 patients, with 25 males and 16 females, M:F ratio of 1.56:1, and a median age of 50. Age ranged from 22 to 79 years. Most patients with reported viral infections or reactivations were in the chronic phase (CP) of CML, with 22 patients (76%) in the CP, 6 patients (21%) in the accelerated phase, and 1 patient (3%) in the blast phase. Most cases with reported outcomes responded to treatment for CML; only one had refractory disease and 8 cases (32%) had major molecular response. Imatinib was the most used TKI in 31 patients (77%). The most reported viral reactivations were herpes zoster in 17 cases (41%), followed by hepatitis B reactivation in 15 cases (37%).

          Key Messages

          This review sheds light on the importance of having a hepatitis B serology checked before starting TKI therapy and close monitoring for viral infections and reactivations in patients with CML.

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          Most cited references74

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          Cancer Statistics, 2017.

          Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2017, 1,688,780 new cancer cases and 600,920 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. For all sites combined, the cancer incidence rate is 20% higher in men than in women, while the cancer death rate is 40% higher. However, sex disparities vary by cancer type. For example, thyroid cancer incidence rates are 3-fold higher in women than in men (21 vs 7 per 100,000 population), despite equivalent death rates (0.5 per 100,000 population), largely reflecting sex differences in the "epidemic of diagnosis." Over the past decade of available data, the overall cancer incidence rate (2004-2013) was stable in women and declined by approximately 2% annually in men, while the cancer death rate (2005-2014) declined by about 1.5% annually in both men and women. From 1991 to 2014, the overall cancer death rate dropped 25%, translating to approximately 2,143,200 fewer cancer deaths than would have been expected if death rates had remained at their peak. Although the cancer death rate was 15% higher in blacks than in whites in 2014, increasing access to care as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act may expedite the narrowing racial gap; from 2010 to 2015, the proportion of blacks who were uninsured halved, from 21% to 11%, as it did for Hispanics (31% to 16%). Gains in coverage for traditionally underserved Americans will facilitate the broader application of existing cancer control knowledge across every segment of the population. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:7-30. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
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            Long-Term Outcomes of Imatinib Treatment for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

            Imatinib, a selective BCR-ABL1 kinase inhibitor, improved the prognosis for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We conducted efficacy and safety analyses on the basis of more than 10 years of follow-up in patients with CML who were treated with imatinib as initial therapy.
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              PD-1 expression in acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with HCV-specific CD8 exhaustion.

              Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8 cell exhaustion may represent a mechanism of HCV persistence. The inhibitory receptor PD-1 has been reported to be up-regulated in exhausted CD8 cells. Therefore, we studied PD-1 expression longitudinally during acute HCV infection. Most HCV-specific CD8 cells expressed PD-1 at the time of acute illness, irrespective of the final outcome. PD-1 expression declined with the acquisition of a memory phenotype and recovery of an efficient CD8 cell function in resolving HCV infections, whereas high levels were maintained when HCV persisted and HCV-specific CD8 cells remained dysfunctional. Blocking PD-1/PDL-1 interaction with an anti-PDL-1 antibody improved the capacity of expansion of virus-specific CD8 cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncology
                Oncology
                OCL
                OCL
                Oncology
                S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland )
                0030-2414
                1423-0232
                17 October 2023
                March 2024
                : 102
                : 4
                : 380-388
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Medicine, Unity Hospital, Rochester Regional Health, New York, NY, USA
                [b ]Department of Medical Oncology/Hematology, National Center for Cancer Care and Research, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar
                [c ]Department of Medicine, John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, IL, USA
                [d ]Medical Research Center, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Abdulrahman F. Al-Mashdali, AAlmashdali@ 123456hamad.qa
                Article
                534266
                10.1159/000534266
                10994575
                37848004
                fbf22a2b-65fa-421d-9e0d-64d862eba384
                © 2023 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/Services/OpenAccessLicense). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission.

                History
                : 25 May 2023
                : 15 September 2023
                : 2024
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, References: 42, Pages: 8
                Funding
                The publication of this article was funded by Qatar National Library.
                Categories
                Review

                chronic myeloid leukemia,viral infections,reactivation,tyrosine kinase inhibitor

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