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Management of Bilateral Carotid Occlusive Disease

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      Background: Symptomatic bilateral internal carotid occlusive disease is a rare but potentially devastating entity. Medical therapy alone is associated with high rates of mortality and recurrent stroke. The optimal management of this disease remains poorly understood. Methods: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was conducted for patients who presented with an acute stroke in the setting of bilateral carotid occlusive disease between May and October 2013. Results: We identified 3 patients. The admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ranged from 4 to 7. All patients had small- to moderate-sized infarcts in the anterior circulation on presentation. Angiography confirmed bilateral internal carotid occlusions with collateral filling via the posterior communicating artery and retrograde filling via external carotid artery supply to the ophthalmic artery. All patients were initially managed with permissive hypertension and anticoagulation followed by carotid angioplasty and stenting. At 1-year follow-up, all patients demonstrated a modified Rankin scale score of 0-1. Conclusions: Carotid stenting may be a safe and effective therapy for patients presenting with symptomatic bilateral carotid occlusions.

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      Extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery for stroke prevention in hemodynamic cerebral ischemia: the Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study randomized trial.

      Patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic internal carotid artery occlusion (AICAO) and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia are at high risk for subsequent stroke when treated medically. To test the hypothesis that extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery, added to best medical therapy, reduces subsequent ipsilateral ischemic stroke in patients with recently symptomatic AICAO and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. Parallel-group, randomized, open-label, blinded-adjudication clinical treatment trial conducted from 2002 to 2010. Forty-nine clinical centers and 18 positron emission tomography (PET) centers in the United States and Canada. The majority were academic medical centers. Patients with arteriographically confirmed AICAO causing hemispheric symptoms within 120 days and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia identified by ipsilateral increased oxygen extraction fraction measured by PET. Of 195 patients who were randomized, 97 were randomized to receive surgery and 98 to no surgery. Follow-up for the primary end point until occurrence, 2 years, or termination of trial was 99% complete. No participant withdrew because of adverse events. Anastomosis of superficial temporal artery branch to a middle cerebral artery cortical branch for the surgical group. Antithrombotic therapy and risk factor intervention were recommended for all participants. For all participants who were assigned to surgery and received surgery, the combination of (1) all stroke and death from surgery through 30 days after surgery and (2) ipsilateral ischemic stroke within 2 years of randomization. For the nonsurgical group and participants assigned to surgery who did not receive surgery, the combination of (1) all stroke and death from randomization to randomization plus 30 days and (2) ipsilateral ischemic stroke within 2 years of randomization. The trial was terminated early for futility. Two-year rates for the primary end point were 21.0% (95% CI, 12.8% to 29.2%; 20 events) for the surgical group and 22.7% (95% CI, 13.9% to 31.6%; 20 events) for the nonsurgical group (P = .78, Z test), a difference of 1.7% (95% CI, -10.4% to 13.8%). Thirty-day rates for ipsilateral ischemic stroke were 14.4% (14/97) in the surgical group and 2.0% (2/98) in the nonsurgical group, a difference of 12.4% (95% CI, 4.9% to 19.9%). Among participants with recently symptomatic AICAO and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia, EC-IC bypass surgery plus medical therapy compared with medical therapy alone did not reduce the risk of recurrent ipsilateral ischemic stroke at 2 years. Identifier: NCT00029146.
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        The anatomy of the posterior communicating artery as a risk factor for ischemic cerebral infarction.

        After the occlusion of an internal carotid artery the principal source of collateral flow is through the arteries of the circle of Willis, but the size and patency of these arteries are quite variable. Study of the anatomy of the collateral pathways in patients with internal-carotid-artery occlusion with or without infarction in the watershed area of the deep white matter may identify patterns that afford protection from ischemic infarction. Using conventional magnetic resonance imaging and three-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography, we evaluated 29 consecutive patients (32 hemispheres at risk) with angiographically proved occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Four collateral pathways to the occluded vessel were evaluated: the proximal segment of the anterior cerebral artery, the posterior communicating artery, the ophthalmic artery, and leptomeningeal collateral vessels from the posterior cerebral artery. Only features of the ipsilateral posterior communicating artery were related to the risk of watershed infarction. The presence of posterior communicating arteries measuring at least 1 mm in diameter was associated with the absence of watershed infarction (13 hemispheres, no infarcts; P < 0.001). Conversely, there were 4 watershed infarcts in the 6 hemispheres with posterior communicating arteries measuring less than 1 mm in diameter and 10 infarcts in the 13 hemispheres with no detectable flow in the ipsilateral posterior communicating artery. A small (< 1 mm in diameter) or absent ipsilateral posterior communicating artery is a risk factor for ischemic cerebral infarction in patients with internal-carotid-artery occlusion.
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          Carotid artery stenting in acute stroke.

          The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the technical success of carotid artery stenting in acute extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion as well as the benefit in clinical outcome. Stroke caused by acute occlusion of the ICA is associated with a significant level of morbidity and mortality. For this type of lesion, treatment with standard intravenous thrombolysis alone leads to a good clinical outcome in only 17% of the cases, with a death rate as high as 55%. Recanalization of the occluded ICA can lead to an improvement in acute symptoms of stroke, prevent possible deterioration, and reduce long-term stroke risk. At present, there is no consensus treatment for patients with acute ischemic stroke presenting with severe clinical symptoms due to atherosclerotic occlusion of the extracranial ICA. Carotid artery stenting was performed in 22 patients with acute atherosclerotic extracranial ICA occlusion within 6 h of stroke symptom onset. In 18 patients, there was an additional intracranial occlusion at the level of the terminal segment of the ICA (n = 4) and at the level of the middle cerebral artery (n = 14). Intracranial occlusions were either treated with the Penumbra system or the Solitaire stent-based recanalization system, or a combination of mechanical recanalization and intra-arterial thrombolysis. Recanalization results were assessed by angiography immediately after the procedure. The neurologic status was evaluated before and after the treatment with a follow-up as long as 90 days using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the modified Rankin Scale. Successful revascularization of extracranial ICA with acute stent implantation was achieved in 21 patients (95%). There was no acute stent thrombosis. After successful recanalization of the origin of the ICA, the intracranial recanalization with Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade 2/3 was achieved in 11 of the 18 patients (61%). The overall recanalization rate (extracranial and intracranial) was 14 of 22 patients (63%). Nine patients (41%) had a modified Rankin Scale score of ≤2 at 90 days. The mortality rate was 13.6% at 90 days. Carotid artery stenting in acute atherosclerotic extracranial ICA occlusion with severe stroke symptoms is feasible, safe, and useful within the first 6 h after symptom onset. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

            Author and article information

            Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, UPMC Stroke Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa., USA
            Interventional Neurology
            Intervent Neurol
            S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@ )
            March 2016
            06 January 2016
            : 4
            : 3-4
            : 96-103
            INE20150043-4096 10.1159/000442530 27051405 PMC4817383 Intervent Neurol 2015;4:96-103
            © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

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            Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 23, Pages: 8
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